Alessandro Farnese


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Farnese, Alessandro

(älĕs-sän`drō färnā`zā), 1545–92, duke of Parma and Piacenza (1586–92), general and diplomat in the service of Philip II of Spain. He was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese and Margaret of Parma and thus a nephew of Philip II and of John of Austria, under whom he distinguished himself at the battle of Lepanto (1571). In 1577, Farnese joined John in the Low Countries to fight the rebels against Spain. Appointed (1578) governor of the Netherlands, he took Tournai, Maastricht, Breda, Bruges, Ghent, and Antwerp from the rebels and secured continued possession of the southern part of the Netherlands for Spain (see Netherlands, Austrian and SpanishNetherlands, Austrian and Spanish,
that part of the Low Countries that, from 1482 until 1794, remained under the control of the imperial house of Hapsburg. The area corresponds roughly to modern Belgium and Luxembourg.
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). In 1590 he was sent to France at the head of a Spanish army to assist the Catholic LeagueLeague
or Holy League,
in French history, organization of Roman Catholics, aimed at the suppression of Protestantism and Protestant political influence in France.
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 against Henry IV of France. He relieved the siege of Paris (1590) and the siege of Rouen (1592), but was wounded soon afterward and retired to Arras, where he died. Farnese showed exceptional skill in military art and diplomacy.

Bibliography

See R. Solari, The House of Farnese (1968).

Farnese, Alessandro

 

Born Aug. 27, 1545, in Rome; died Dec. 3, 1592, in Arras. Military commander and official of the Spanish monarchy. Vicegerent in the Netherlands for the Spanish king from 1578 (officially, from 1581). Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Son of Ottavio Farnese, duke of Parma and Piacenza, and Margaret of Parma.

During the struggle of the Spanish monarchy to put down the Dutch bourgeois revolution, Farnese succeeded in recapturing the Walloon provinces for Spain, concluding a treaty with the Union of Arras in May 1579. After a series of victories over the revolutionary forces, he was able to seize most of the southern Netherlands. In the early 1590’s, Farnese was defeated by the troops of Maurice of Nassau. On orders from Phillip II of Spain, Farnese invaded France, forcing Henry of Navarre to lift the siege of Paris in 1590 and the siege of Rouen in 1592.

References in periodicals archive ?
Highlights included the small-scale copy of the Last Judgment, commissioned by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese of Marcello Venusti in 1549, which shows the imposing fresco before the strategic coverings and changes made by Daniele da Volterra to hide the nudity and other perceived vulgarities (earning Volterra the nickname of Il braghettone, the breeches painter).
The fiction or materia in the painting is the representation of Alessandro Farnese as Paul the Apostle, while in Caro's play, the primary fictional component and integral materia is the "Romanization" of the originally Lucchese straccioni.
In Titian's Paul III Without Hat, Alessandro Farnese becomes Paul the Apostle in a representation that fuses story and image in a metamorphosis to satisfy propagandistic stipulations.
In a 1548 letter to Vittoria Farnese, daughter of Pierluigi Farnese and granddaughter of Alessandro Farnese, Pope Paul III, Caro declined to send her a copy of Gli straccioni on the grounds that it was "composed for Rome and for that particular time and about a subject which at the time was still fresh and in accordance with the tastes of the Duke your father.
Accused of complicity in the plot, Caro returned to Rome and entered the service of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, the Pope's nephew.
Paolo Morigia, in his La Nobilita di Milano of 1595, praised Lucio Piccinino both for his relief work in iron and silver and his damascening, noting that he had made costly armours for Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, and other princes.
Especially welcome was the identification of Andrea Casalini of Parma as the artist responsible for designing the decoration of the 'Piccinino' armour of Alessandro Farnese (no.
Therefore Jupiter the planet had great influence in making Alessandro Farnese a cardinal, and this would be reason enough to paint the single planet Jupiter among the stars of this vault.
In addition Lippincott thought the well-known and genuine birth horoscope of Alessandro Farnese which was published by Luca Gaurico in 1552, conflicted with the birth time given in the horoscope published by Giuntini in 1583.
But there is no discrepancy between the dates and times of birth proposed by Francesco Giuntini and Luca Gaurico for the birth of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
The first born of these twins was to become the great military hero, Alessandro Farnese, the second was Carlo.
For Steuco's relationship with Alessandro Farnese, see Freudenberger, 1935, 97-140.