Aleuts


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Aleuts

 

(self-designation, Unungun), the native population of the Aleutian Islands (USA).

Aleuts number about 5,000 (1961). A small number of them (about 400 in 1959) have been living on the Commander Islands of the USSR since the early 19th century. Their language is Aleutian. Most scholars believe that the Aleuts came to the Aleutian Islands from Alaska, where they branched off from the closely related Eskimos about 4,000 years ago. Before the Russians discovered the Aleutian Islands in the 18th century, the Aleuts used wooden, stone, and bone tools and were familiar with the cold forging of native copper. Their occupations were hunting whales and other sea mammals, fishing, and foraging. In the early 19th century they adopted many traits of Russian culture and the Russian Orthodox religion. In 1932 the Aleut Raion was set up on the Commander Islands in the USSR, where most Aleuts work in a fur-farming sovkhoz. In the USA, under the conditions of capitalist exploitation, the economy and original culture of the Aleuts have been largely destroyed. Many Aleuts work for hire as unskilled laborers.

REFERENCES

Narody Ameriki, vol. 1. Moscow, 1959.
Narody Sibiri. Moscow, 1956.

S. A. ARUTIUNOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Centuries ago, islands even further west were inhabited by the native Aleut people, who used skin-on-frame iqyax craft to navigate the archipelago.
In contrast, we found that the minimum difference in the average length of Pacific cod taken by longline fisheries was only 3-4 cm larger than the smallest prehistoric mean size fish caught by the ancient Aleuts using jigs.
Fur seals, traditionally a mainstay in the Aleut diet, are declining in number for reasons that are not yet understood.
Young Aleuts like Zena are thriving with these changes and look forward to "off island" careers.
Since his need for workers led him to force hundreds of Aleuts, often at gunpoint, into local hunting parties, and to resettle thousands of Kodiak people at company posts from the Kurile Islands to California, he encountered strong opposition from the missionaries.
These 12 regional corporations represent the diverse cultures within the three ethnic races: Indian, Eskimo, and Aleut.
But today most young Aleuts, like Western children and teens anywhere, spend their days in school and are weaned on TV programs and computers.
Much has been made of this early period of Russian exploitation of the sea otter trade, including native oral legends of extreme violence by the Russians towards Aleuts, but recent work by scholars indicates the excesses were exaggerated, since in practically all cases of early contact between natives and Russians, the Russians were outnumbered, occasionally by as many as a hundred to one.
we weren't even talking about Hispanics, we weren't talking about Native Americans, we weren't talking about Eskimos and Aleuts, we were only talking about black and white?
But the 200 local Aleuts have no mainland home to where they can retreat.
For more than two decades, Larry Merculieff and his fellow Aleuts have witnessed ominous signs: seabird chicks so weak that they fall from cliffs, adult birds so malnourished that their breast muscles cave in and Steller sea lions so hungry that they attack fur seal pups (a sight unheard of in Aleut memory).
Wong's sister as a high-mast welder, I may still be in trouble if there aren't enough female Aleuts or Samoans on the team.