Alexander VI


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Alexander VI,

1431?–1503, pope (1492–1503), a Spaniard (b. Játiva) named Rodrigo de Borja or, in Italian, Rodrigo Borgia; successor of Innocent VIII. He took Borja as his surname from his mother's brother Alfonso, who was Pope Calixtus III. Rodrigo became cardinal (1456), vice chancellor of the Roman Church (1457), and dean of the sacred college (1476). Cardinal Borgia had four illegitimate children by a Roman woman, Vannozza; among them were Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia. Alexander was elected by a corrupt conclave. The foreign relations during his papacy were dominated by the increasing influence of France in Italy, which culminated in the invasion of Charles VIII in 1494. Alexander prevented Charles from taking the church property in Rome, but he turned over to the French the valuable Ottoman hostage Djem, brother of Sultan Beyazid IIBeyazid II,
1447–1513, Ottoman sultan (1481–1512), son and successor of Muhammad II to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). With the help of the corps of Janissaries he put down the revolt of his brother Jem.
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. Alexander's son, Cesare Borgia, was the principal leader in papal affairs, and papal resources were spent lavishly in building up Cesare's power. For his daughter Lucrezia, Alexander arranged suitable marriages. The favoritism shown his children and the lax moral tone of Renaissance Rome as well as the unscrupulous methods employed by Cesare and other papal officials have made Alexander's name the symbol of the worldly irreligion of Renaissance popes. Girolamo SavonarolaSavonarola, Girolamo
, 1452–98, Italian religious reformer, b. Ferrara. He joined (1475) the Dominicans. In 1481 he went to San Marco, the Dominican house at Florence, where he became popular for his eloquent sermons, in which he attacked the vice and worldliness of the
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 was an outspoken opponent and critic of Alexander. Recent studies tend to minimize the pope's immorality and stress his solid achievements as a political strategist and church administrator. It was Alexander who proclaimed the line of demarcation that awarded part of the new discoveries in the world to Spain, part to Portugal (see Tordesillas, Treaty ofTordesillas, Treaty of
, 1494, agreement signed at Tordesillas, Spain, by which Spain and Portugal divided the non-Christian world into two zones of influence. In principle the treaty followed the papal bull issued in 1493 by Pope Alexander VI, which fixed the demarcation line
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). Alexander was a munificent patron of the arts. He was succeeded by Pius III.

Alexander VI

 

(secular name, Rodrigo Borgia). Born circa 1431; died Aug. 18, 1503. Roman pope from 1492.

Alexander became pope by bribing the majority of the cardinals. Attempting to create a strong state in the center of Italy (as a possession of the Borgia family), he supported the aggressive plans of his son Cesare Borgia. To secure these plans, Alexander resorted to extensive sales of church offices, collections of tithes for crusades, and confiscation of the property of many rich people. He eliminated his political enemies by poison and stabbing. In 1497 he excommunicated and then brought about the execution of Savonarola, who had demanded the deposition of the criminal and debauched pope. At the start of the Italian wars (1494–1559), Alexander alternately supported both sides, depending on the personal advantage he could reap.

Alexander VI

Borgia pope infamous for licentiousness and debauchery. [Ital. Hist.: Plumb, 219–220]

Alexander VI

original name Rodrigo Borgia. 1431--1503, pope (1492--1503): noted for his extravagance and immorality as well as for his patronage of the arts; father of Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia, with whom he is said to have committed incest
References in periodicals archive ?
Luther and his followers were quick to seize upon Savonarola's vehement and relentless attack on Pope Alexander VI and clerical corruption, claiming him as a Protestant avant la lettre.
The historical drama would have told the story of the family of Rodrigo Borgia, who became Pope Alexander VI and ran the Vatican as a crime syndicate while fathering numerous illegitimate children.
James have been transformed into likenesses of the Holy Doors that Pope Alexander VI installed at St.
It would be foolish to deny its existence and say, as a few scientists have said, pandering to popular opinion it sometimes seems, that science has its domain and that all existence can be divided as the world was cleaved, on paper at least, by Pope Alexander VI in 1493 in his recommendation to the Castilian monarchs.
This Borgia, Pope Alexander VI, who reigned from 1492 to 1503, made the initial division of the Western Hemisphere.
They sing the praises of Gregory the Great and deplore Alexander VI.
Michelangelo's Pieta, commissioned by Pope Alexander VI, is often referred to as a testament to the love of the Blessed Mother for her son, cradling his body taken down from the cross.
Caption: A copy of the Borgianus Latinus, a missal for Christmas made for Pope Alexander VI, is displayed in an exhibit on the Vatican Library.
Once the source of their funds Alexander VI (himself famous for being hugely wealthy, having mistresses, rumours of incest and being Pope) had died, the clan found that without their steady stream of money they were suddenly in a very precarious position.
I was astonished to see an article on Alexander VI, known as the Borgia Pope, in your magazine for the month of September, for the reason that throughout my long life (I'm 92), I have not come across anything, until now, speaking well of Pope Alexander VI.