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Born Feb. 5, 1770, in Paris; died there Oct. 7, 1847. French geologist. Member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (1815).
Brongniart was professor of natural history from 1797 and professor of mineralogy from 1822 in Paris. Together with G. Cuvier, he established a scheme of the stratigraphic division of Tertiary deposits of the Paris basin. He introduced the concept of index fossils and helped create the paleontological method in stratigraphy. In 1813 he proposed a mineralogical classification of rocks and gave a series of new designations (diabase, melaphyre, psammite, and others). In 1829 he published a chronological scale of all suites known at that time on the basis of paleontological characteristics and independent of their lithological composition. From 1800 he was director of the Sèvres Porcelain Factory, where he organized a famous ceramics museum.