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Alfonso V(Alfonso the Magnanimous), 1396–1458, king of Aragón and Sicily (1416–58) and of Naples (1443–58), count of Barcelona. He was the son of Ferdinand I, whom he succeeded in Aragón and Sicily. Queen Joanna IIJoanna II,
1371–1435, queen of Naples (1414–35), sister and successor of Lancelot. The intrigues of her favorites kept her court in turmoil. Her second husband, James of Bourbon, tried to seize power but was imprisoned in 1416.
..... Click the link for more information. of Naples sought his aid against Louis IIILouis III,
1403–34, king of Naples (1417–34; rival claimant to Joanna II), duke of Anjou, count of Provence, son and successor of Louis II. He invaded Naples in 1420.
..... Click the link for more information. , rival king of Naples, and, after Alfonso had defeated (1421) Louis, Joanna adopted Alfonso as her heir. They quarreled in 1423, and when Joanna died (1435), she left her throne to RenéRené
, 1409–80, king of Naples (1435–80; rival claimant to Alfonso V of Aragón and Ferdinand I of Naples), duke of Anjou, Bar, and Lorraine, count of Provence. He was also called René of Anjou and Good King René.
..... Click the link for more information. of Anjou. Attempting to conquer Naples, Alfonso was captured (1435) by the Genoese, but he was released through the agency of the duke of Milan. In 1442 he defeated René, took Naples, and was recognized (1443) as king by the Pope. Leaving his Spanish possessions under the rule of his wife and his brother, Alfonso spent the rest of his life in Naples, where he accorded great privileges to Spanish nobles and tried to introduce Spanish institutions. A patron of arts and letters, he held a splendid court and beautified the city. Alfonso also played a vigorous part in Italian politics. He left Naples to his Son Ferdinand I and the rest of his kingdom to his brother John II.
Alfonso V,1432–81, king of Portugal (1438–81), son of Duarte and Queen Leonor. During his minority there was a struggle for the regency between the queen mother and Alfonso's uncle, Dom Pedro, duke of Coimbra. The duke was triumphant (1440) and retained power after Alfonso was declared of age (1446) until the young king fell under the influence of Dom Pedro's illegitimate half-brother, Alfonso, duke of BraganzaBraganza
, royal house that ruled Portugal from 1640 to 1910 and Brazil from 1822 to 1889. It took its name from the castle of Braganza or Bragança. The line was descended from Alfonso, the natural son of John I of Portugal, who became the duke of Braganza in 1442.
..... Click the link for more information. . The dismissal (1448) of Dom Pedro led to a civil war, in which the king's troops killed (1449) his uncle at Alfarrobeira. Alfonso undertook ventures in Morocco and by capturing Alcácer-Seguer (1458) and Tangier (1471) won the name Alfonso the African. Less rewarding was his long attempt to win the throne of Castile after his marriage—never sanctioned by the church—in 1475 to Juana la BeltranejaJuana la Beltraneja
, 1462–1530, Castilian princess, daughter of Juana of Portugal, queen of Henry IV of Castile. Her paternity was generally attributed to the court favorite Beltrán de la Cueva, whence her name.
..... Click the link for more information. , officially the daughter and heiress of Henry IV of Castile, although generally thought to be the child of Beltrán de la Cueva. This claim brought Alfonso into war with Isabella IIsabella I
or Isabella the Catholic,
1451–1504, Spanish queen of Castile and León (1474–1504), daughter of John II of Castile. In 1469 she married Ferdinand of Aragón (later King Ferdinand II of Aragón and Ferdinand V of Castile).
..... Click the link for more information. of Castile and her husband, Ferdinand IIFerdinand II
or Ferdinand the Catholic,
1452–1516, king of Aragón (1479–1516), king of Castile and León (as Ferdinand V, 1474–1504), king of Sicily (1468–1516), and king of Naples (1504–16).
..... Click the link for more information. of Aragón. Alfonso, badly beaten in the battle of Toro (1476), capitulated in 1479. During his reign Prince Henry the NavigatorHenry the Navigator,
1394–1460, prince of Portugal, patron of exploration. Because he fought with extraordinary valor in the Portuguese conquest of Ceuta (1415), he was created duke of Viseu by his father, John I, king of Portugal.
..... Click the link for more information. was active. Alfonso was succeeded by his son, John II, who was the effective ruler of Portugal after 1476.