Alfonso XII

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Alfonso XII,

1857–85, king of Spain (1874–85), son of Isabella IIIsabella II,
1830–1904, queen of Spain (1833–68), daughter of Ferdinand VII and of Maria Christina. Her uncle, Don Carlos, contested her succession under the Salic law, and thus the Carlist Wars began (see Carlists).
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. He went into exile with his parents at the time of the revolt of the CarlistsCarlists,
partisans of Don Carlos (1788–1855) and his successors, who claimed the Spanish throne under the Salic law of succession, introduced (1713) by Philip V. The law (forced on Philip by the War of the Spanish Succession to avoid a union of the French and Spanish
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 in 1868 and was educated in Austria and England. In 1870 his mother abdicated her rights in his favor, and in 1874 he was proclaimed king. Supported by Martínez de CamposMartínez de Campos, Arsenio
, 1831–1900, Spanish general. He served in Morocco (1859–60), in Mexico (1861–63), and in Cuba (1869–72). He played a leading role in the proclamation (1874) of Alfonso XII as king and helped bring the Carlist Wars to an
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 and Cánovas del CastilloCánovas del Castillo, Antonio
, 1828–97, Spanish conservative politician, historian, and man of letters. During Spain's recurrent political crises from 1868 to 1874, he took the lead in advocating the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy.
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, he consolidated the monarchy, winning greater popularity for it than it had enjoyed under his mother or grandfather, Fernando VII. He was a victim of the cholera epidemic of 1885. His widow, Maria ChristinaMaria Christina
, 1858–1929, queen of Spain, consort of Alfonso XII. An Austrian archduchess, she was married to Alfonso in 1879. After his death, she was regent (1886–1902) for his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII, but took very little part in political affairs.
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 (1858–1929), was regent during the minority of his posthumous son, Alfonso XIII.