Nobel, Alfred Bernhard

(redirected from Alfred Nobel)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Alfred Nobel: Nobel prize

Nobel, Alfred Bernhard

(äl`frĕd bĕrn`härd nōbĕl`), 1833–96, Swedish chemist and inventor. Educated in St. Petersburg, Russia, he traveled as a youth and returned to St. Petersburg in 1852 to assist his father in the development of torpedoes and mines. Manufacture of a mixture of nitroglycerinnitroglycerin
, C3H5N3O9, colorless, oily, highly explosive liquid. It is the nitric acid triester of glycerol and is more correctly called glycerol trinitrate.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and gunpowdergunpowder,
explosive mixture; its most common formula, called "black powder," is a combination of saltpeter, sulfur, and carbon in the form of charcoal. Historically, the relative amounts of the components have varied.
..... Click the link for more information.
, developed cooperatively by the family, was begun in the small Nobel works in Heleneborg, near Stockholm, in 1863. After a number of serious explosions, which killed several people, Nobel continued experimentation with nitroglycerin in order to find a safer explosive. In 1866 he perfected a combination of nitroglycerin and kieselguhr, a diatomaceous earth (see diatomdiatom
, unicellular organism of the kingdom Protista, characterized by a silica shell of often intricate and beautiful sculpturing. Most diatoms exist singly, although some join to form colonies.
..... Click the link for more information.
), to which he gave the name dynamitedynamite,
explosive made from nitroglycerin and an inert, porous filler such as wood pulp, sawdust, kieselguhr, or some other absorbent material. The proportions vary in different kinds of dynamite; often ammonium nitrate or sodium nitrate is added.
..... Click the link for more information.
. His other inventions include an explosive gelatin more powerful than dynamite and the smokeless powder Ballistite. Nobel, who inclined toward pacifism, had long had reservations about his family's industry, and he developed strong misgivings about the potential uses of his own invention. On his death in San Remo, Italy, he left a fund from the interest of which annual awards, the Nobel PrizesNobel Prize,
award given for outstanding achievement in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, peace, or literature. The awards were established by the will of Alfred Nobel, who left a fund to provide annual prizes in the five areas listed above.
..... Click the link for more information.
, are given for work in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, and literature, and toward the promotion of international peace.

Bibliography

See biography by H. Schück et al., Nobel: The Man and His Prizes (3d ed. 1972).

Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1867, Alfred Nobel discovered how to stabilize nitroglycerin by adding diatomaceous earth.
He also said that through five pavilions, visitors will be able to get a closer view of the concept of the Nobel Prize, its objectives, and Alfred Nobel, along with his contributions in the service of humanity.
As you move through the exhibition, you might just bump into Alfred Nobel himself
The Zayed Future Energy Prize has the potential to do for clean energy what Alfred Nobel did for science and peace.
In this expansion of his lecture on "More than a century of Nobel Prizes" published in the Journal of the American Philosophical Society, 2002, Norrby (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), provides biographical background on prize namesake Alfred Nobel and shares his experience being involved in the highly secretive selection process.
1833: Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and founder of the Nobel Prizes, was born in Stockholm.
Australian import Starspangledbanner was fifth in the same York race on his first start for Aidan O'Brien and is one of two entries for Ballydoyle along with Alfred Nobel.
Alfred Nobel was expected to follow up at the same venue in the National Stakes in September, but was last after suffering a knock in the race and returned with a swollen hock.
At a glittering occasion at the Sheraton Hotel in Sofia on December 11, the Swedish embassy presented--for the 11th consecutive year--scholarships in the spirit of Alfred Nobel to promising Bulgarian students.
Only six runners went to post for the last Group 1 of the season in Ireland but among them were Aidan O'Brien's Phoenix Stakes hero Alfred Nobel.
This biography, which accompanies an exhibition of the same name, surveys the life of Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) from his childhood to his death, through the perspective of technological and social networks.
Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel - who invented dynamite - had left 94 per cent of his total assets for the establishment of five prizes.