Alfred Von Tirpitz


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Tirpitz, Alfred Von

 

Born Mar. 19, 1849, in Küstrin; died Mar. 6, 1930, in Ebenhausen, near Munich. German naval commander and political figure. Grand admiral (1911).

Tirpitz came from a bourgeois family but was elevated to the nobility in 1900. He joined the navy in 1865 and because of his exceptional abilities rose rapidly in the service. In 1890 he became chief of staff of the Baltic Fleet and from 1892 to 1895 served as chief of staff of the Navy High Command. While commanding a cruiser squadron in East Asia in 1896–97, Tirpitz was the prime mover behind the seizure of the Chinese port of Tsingtao and the creation there of a German naval base. From 1897 to 1916 he served as secretary of state for the Imperial Navy Department.

Tirpitz played a major role in shaping the aggressive political course taken by Germany. Expressing the interests of the German imperialists, he was a strong proponent of the naval arms race; he worked to create a strong navy capable of challenging the British Navy and of serving as a tool of German imperialism in the struggle to repartition the world. Tirpitz regarded Great Britain as Germany’s chief enemy and called for an alliance with Japan and the neutralization of Russia.

During World War I, Tirpitz was a supporter of unlimited submarine warfare and merciless air bombings of the industrial centers and military targets of Great Britain. Disagreements with the chancellor, T. von Bethmann-Hollweg, regarding the submarine war led to Tirpitz’ retirement on Mar. 15, 1916. Together with W. Kapp, Tirpitz founded the ultrareactionary German Fatherland Party in September 1917. He maintained a revanchist position after the war. In 1919, Tirpitz published his Memoirs (Russian translation, Moscow, 1957), in which he blamed Germany’s defeat on the failure of the political leadership to make sufficient use of the German Navy. From 1924 to 1928, Tirpitz was a deputy to the Reichstag, representing the German National People’s Party.

REFERENCES

Alafuzov, V. A. Doktriny germanskogo flota. Moscow, 1956.
Trotha, A. von. Grossadmiral von Tirpitz. Breslau [1932].
Marine und Marinepolitik im kaiserlichen Deutschland. Düsseldorf, 1972.
Hubatsch, W. Die Ära Tirpitz. Góttingen [1955].
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
But as Winston Churchill, first Lord of the Admiralty, prepared to build yet more battleships, Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz announced that the German Navy was putting 14 new warships to sea in the first months of 1914.
Tirpitz and the Imperial German Navy is the first English-language in-depth study of Grand Admiral Alfred Von Tirpitz (1849-1930), the driving force behind the German Imperial Navy before World War I.
An associate professor of modern European history at Colby College and holder of a PhD from Brandeis University, Scheck has authored the books Alfred von Tirpitz and German Right Wing Politics, 1914-1930 and Mothers of the Nation: Right-Wing Women in Weimar Germany, along with several articles on German right-wing politics.
These ideas were to exert an enormous influence on public opinion, especially when championed by the Kaiser himself and his Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz.
In the early 1900s, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz of Germany based his naval strategy on deterrence.
Naval enthusiasts like Kaiser Wilhelm II and Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, their imaginations fired by the works of Alfred Thayer Mahan, hurled Germany into naval competition with Great Britain, the dominant naval power of the day, with fateful results.
The ever-present ghost of Lord Admiral Nelson is joined by the shadows of Jackie Fisher and Alfred von Tirpitz as influences on the actions of Admirals Jellicoe, Beatty, Scheer, and Hipper and the decisions of their respective governments.
His review of the German navy reminds readers that many of the men responsible for its modern existence and rapid expansion--Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and Kaiser Wilhelm II--were still in authority.
23) Meanwhile, Germany's navy secretary, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, went even farther, trying to play on British fears that Anglo-German relations would deteriorate, rather than improve, if Churchill persisted in pursuing his scheme.