Algonquian Languages

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Algonquian Languages


one of the major language families of the North American Indians. Since most Algon-quian tribes have been exterminated, the Algonquian languages are now spoken only in a few places in the United States and Canada, mainly in the Great Lakes region and farther south.

The Algonquian language family consists of five groups: the languages of the Blackfoot Indians; Cheyenne; Arapaho; the central and eastern groups; and the California group. The central and eastern groups, which are the most widespread, include the Algonquian language proper, Ojibway,Ottawa (in the region of lakes Superior and Huron), Cree (in Labrador), Delaware (in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey), Fox (in the Mississippi Valley), and the extinct languages of the Mohicans, Massachusetts, and other tribes. The Black-foot languages are spoken in Canada, the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, and northern Montana; Cheyenne in southeastern Minnesota and northeastern South Dakota; and Arapaho in eastern North Dakota and southern Montana. The California group is represented by two languages—Wiyot and Yurok.

The grammar of the Algonquian languages is characterized by polysynthesism: word elements which correspond to secondary members of a sentence and depend on a predicate are combined to form morphs (the smallest units of language that have meaning). The resulting word is the equivalent of a sentence.


Boas, F. Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 1. Washington, 1911.
Pilling, J. C. Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages. Washington, 1891.
References in periodicals archive ?
In Algonquian languages, verb stems are split into four classes according to the valence and semantic class (gender) of arguments: (9) Intransitive Inanimate (II; intransitive verbs with an inanimate subject), Intransitive Animate (IA; intransitive verbs with an animate subject), Transitive Inanimate (TI; transitive verbs with an inanimate object), Transitive Animate (TA; transitive verbs with an animate object).
The missionaries relied on their knowledge of the structure of other Algonquian languages to ease their acquisition of Miami-Illinois.
Trade languages were common throughout North America, including a Virginia Algonquian language used by the Powhatan confederacy, a pidginized form of Delaware, Occaneeche, Peoria, Ojibway, Cree, Dakota, Comanche, Navaho, Hupa, and a pidginized version of Chinook (Goddard 1971; Dreschel 1981; Taylor 1981; Rhodes 1982; Thomason 1983).