All-Russian Zemstvo Union

All-Russian Zemstvo Union

 

(full name: the All-Russian Zemstvo Union for Aid to Sick and Wounded Troops), an all-Russian organization of liberal pomeshchiks (landlords) and bourgeoisie. Founded in Moscow on July 30, 1914, at a congress of delegates of provincial zemstvos (elected district administrations).

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Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, where he joined the Bolshevik Party and became a professional revolutionary (1905); sent by the Moscow Russian Social Democratic Workers Party to Ivanovo-Voznesensk (modern Ivanovo) and Shuya as an agitator; arrested and sentenced to internal exile several times (1905-1909); condemned to death but his sentence was eventually commuted to permanent exile in Manzurka, Siberia (March 1914); using several false names, he continued his revolutionary activities in Irkutsk and Chita (1914-1916); illegally returned to serve as a statistician in the All-Russian Zemstvo Union on the Western Front in World War I, and headed the Bolshevik underground in Minsk; elected as a delegate to the First Congress of the Soviet of Peasant Deputies in Petrograd (St.

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