Allelopathy


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Allelopathy

The biochemical interactions among all types of plants, including microorganisms. The term is usually interpreted as the detrimental influence of one plant upon another but is used more and more, as intended originally, to encompass both detrimental and beneficial interactions. At least two forms of allelopathy are distinguished: (1) the production and release of an allelochemical by one species inhibiting the growth of only other adjacent species, which may confer competitive advantage for the allelopathic species; and (2) autoallelopathy, in which both the species producing the allelochemical and unrelated species are indiscriminately affected. The term allelopathy, frequently restricted to interactions among higher plants, is now applied to interactions among plants from all divisions, including algae. Even interactions between plants and herbivorous insects or nematodes in which plant substances attract, repel, deter, or retard the growth of attacking insects or nematodes are considered to be allelopathic. Interactions between soil microorganisms and plants are important in allelopathy. Fungi and bacteria may produce and release inhibitors or promoters. Some bacteria enhance plant growth through fixing nitrogen, others through providing phosphorus. The activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria may be affected by allelochemicals, and this effect in turn may influence ecological patterns. The rhizosphere must be considered the main site for allelopathic interactions.

Allelopathy is clearly distinguished from competition: In allelopathy a chemical is introduced by the plant into the environment, whereas in competition the plant removes or reduces such environmental components as minerals, water, space, gas exchange, and light. In the field, both allelopathy and competition usually act simultaneously.

Allelopathy

 

the effect of plants on one another as a result of their secretion of various substances. Four groups of such substances are known. Substances of two of the groups are formed by microorganisms: antibiotics, which suppress the vital activity of other organisms, and “maras-mines” (wilting substances), which act on higher plants. Substances of the two other groups are secreted by higher plants: phytoncides, which suppress the vital activity of microorganisms, and cholines, which retard the growth of higher plants. Sometimes a positive influence is observed by one plant upon another, which is particularly important in agrophytocenoses. The phenomenon of allelopathy must be taken into consideration in growing agricultural plants (including crop rotation and mixed sowings).

REFERENCES

Grodzinskii, A. M. Allelopatiia v zhizni rastenii i ikh soobshchestv. Kiev, 1965.
Fiziologo-biokhimicheskie osnovy vzaimnogo vliianiia rastenii v fitotsenoze. Moscow, 1966.

allelopathy

[‚a·lə′läp·ə·thē]
(plasma physics)
The harmful effect of one plant or microorganism on another owing to the release of secondary metabolic products into the environment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Roles of allelopathy in plant biodiversity and sustainable agriculture.
Uludag A, Uremis I, Arslan M and D Gozcu Allelopathy studies in weed science in Turkey-a review.
Challenges and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management.
Allelopathy refers to the production of toxic substances by certain plants -- in their leaves, wood, bark, and roots -- that discourage other plants from growing in their vicinity.
Putnam, a retired Michigan State University horticulturist who spent 18 years studying allelopathy, or plants' chemical defenses against other plants.
Negative influences may include shading, crushing, allelopathy, limiting water absorption and isolation of the seedling roots from the mineral soil (Johnsen 1962; Bergelson 1990; Bosy & Reader 1995; Milton 1995; Yager & Smiens 1999).
Alternatively, one could germinate seeds from two species in the same Petri dish and test for evidence of allelopathy, the growth inhibition of one species caused by the growth of another species (Raven et al.
Disadvantages of seed germination under a nurse plant may include competition for resources if the adult plant has a near-surface root system, reduced net carbon gain, and allelopathy (Franca and Nobel 1989; Brittingham and Walker 2000).
Allelopathy provides a relatively cheaper and environmental friendly weed control alternative [1, 2], It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the role of allelopathy in plants.
The findings, which were published in the March 2013 Allelopathy Journal, mark the first report of Myrothecium's bioherbicidal activity against a weed species with glyphosate resistance.
The term allelopathy refers to the capacity of either superior or inferior plants to release a substance to their immediate environment that modulates the development of other plant species (FRITZ et al.
Reciprocal allelopathy between the gametophytes of Osmunda cinnamomea and Dryopteris intermedia.