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inflammation of the membrane lining a sinus, esp a nasal sinus



an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses in man and animals. In humans, acute sinusitis usually arises as a complication of influenza, acute respiratory diseases, or other infectious diseases; chronic sinusitis develops from acute sinusitis that has not been completely cured.

The general symptoms of acute sinusitis include elevated body temperature, headache, abundant nasal discharge, and difficulty in breathing through the nose, most often on one side. With chronic sinusitis, there is usually no increase in body temperature and the other symptoms are less pronounced. Localization of the process determines the symptoms. Sinusitis may be catarrhal or purulent, depending on the type of inflammation. With chronic sinusitis, proliferations of the mucosa (polyps) often form in the paranasal sinuses and the nasal cavity.

Several different forms of sinusitis are distinguished, depending on which sinus is affected. The most common form is maxillary sinusitis, which is an inflammation of the maxillary sinus. With frontal sinusitis, the frontal sinus becomes inflamed; with ethmoid sinusitis, the ethmoidal labyrinth; and with sphenoid sinusitis, the sphenoidal sinus. Sometimes the inflammatory process spreads to all the paranasal sinuses on one or both sides (pansinusitis). Treatment includes the use of medicinal agents, the administration of heat (hot-water bag, compress), and physical therapy. Sometimes surgical treatment is indicated. Prophylaxis includes the timely treatment of the cause of the disease. [23–1294–]


Inflammation of a paranasal sinus.
References in periodicals archive ?
The syndrome has been reported in patients using humidification reservoirs for C-Pap therapy and it can coexist with allergic fungal sinusitis.
The preoperative impression was chronic sinusitis or allergic fungal sinusitis equally in both groups.
Allergic fungal sinusitis usually occurs in young immunocompetent patients ranging in age from early childhood to their late 40s, and it demonstrates equal sex distribution.
It is interesting that the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis is higher in warmer climates.
Major criteria for the presence of allergic fungal sinusitis include nasal polyposis, evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity, eosinophilic mucus, characteristic CT findings of unilateral involvement and hyperdense areas in the affected sinus, and a positive fungal culture.
Subsequent case reports described identical findings with other fungi, and the disease was termed allergic fungal sinusitis.
On the other hand, allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to be the result of an atopic reaction to the causative fungus, and most patients with fungus balls are immunocompetent.
24,25) It is extremely important to recognize allergic fungal sinusitis and to be able to differentiate it from other forms of sinusitis, because the treatments and prognoses for these disorders differ significantly.