Claudius Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos and Almagest
(Second Century, AD) were the standards of the day, but his planetary positions not accurate.
In the first lines of the Almagest
, Ptolemy establishes his expertise in philosophy by stating a criterion by which to judge who the legitimate philosophers are.
Ptolemy says in the first book of the Almagest
that man ought not to satisfy his mind with probabilities and opinions, because these do not bring about stable concepts in the mind, but only be satisfied with demonstrated and certain things which certify and establish understanding because they are certain and eternally stable.
Horses to follow: Afsare, Almagest
, Attracted To You, Charleston Lady, Chunky Diamond, Communicator, Deacon Blues, Dominant, End Or Beginning, Forest Row, Isabella Gem, Ittirad, Lily's Angel, Lui Rei, Mahab El Shamaal, Meeznah, Mr Dream Maker, Oil Strike, Poole Harbour, Sylvestris, The Guru Of Gloom, Thimaar.
The maps show the stars of the 48 constellations, based on Ptolemy's Second Century star catalogue, The Almagest
included the equivalent of a table of sine values.
Among specific topics are between the Almagest
and the Revolutions, the poetics of reflection in Virginia Woolf's short fiction, a phenomenological view of macrosynecdoche, the salience of incongruities in humorous texts and their resolution, image schemas as a way to analyze words and images with examples from William Blake and a Buddhist text, and the case of a curious quixotic Descuido and the role of translative texts.
For him, as for Ptolemy whose Almagest
he paraphrases, the sphere is the only figure most fitting for circular motion such as that of celestial bodies, and is the noblest (ashraf al-ashkal), (17) most encompassing (azyaduha ihatatan), (18) and most perfect because of its unique form limited by a single surface.
After each list is compiled, a new generation or an adjoining culture finds a better way of constructing the tables, sometimes rediscovering old ways, yet all mimicking the reasoning and style of Ptolemy's Almagest
and its recursive construction by way of versions of the half angle formulas and the addition formulas, whose modern day representatives are
F2) and the three "Chaldean" observations in the Almagest
Two of the articles in this issue, by Charles Burnett and John Crossley, explore medieval translations of Ptolemy's Almagest
, written in the second century AD.
Ptolemy, author of the Almagest
, is relevant here for his Geography, a book that includes instructions on how to represent a three-dimensional world on a flat surface: a map.