Almagro, Diego de

Almagro, Diego de

(dyā`gō dā älmä`grō), c.1475–1538, Spanish conquistador, a leader in the conquest of Peru. A partner of Francisco PizarroPizarro, Francisco
, c.1476–1541, Spanish conquistador, conqueror of Peru. Born in Trujillo, he was an illegitimate son of a Spanish gentleman and as a child was an illiterate swineherd.
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, he took part in the first (1524) and second (1526–28) expeditions and in the bloody subjugation of the Incas after 1532. He aided (1534) BenalcázarBenalcázar or Belalcázar, Sebastián de
, c.1479–1551, Spanish conquistador. After accompanying Columbus on his third voyage (1498), Benalcázar served in Darién and Nicaragua
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 in thwarting Pedro de AlvaradoAlvarado, Pedro de
, 1486–1541, Spanish conquistador. He went to Hispaniola (1510), sailed in the expedition (1518) of Juan de Grijalva, and was the chief lieutenant of Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico.
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 in the conquest of Ecuador. No match for the Pizarro brothers, he lost out in the division of spoils but was granted the lands S of CuzcoCuzco
or Cusco
, city (1993 pop. 97,466), alt. 11,207 ft (3,416 m), capital of Cuzco dept., S Peru, at the confluence of the Huatanay and Tullamayo rivers. Its population is predominantly native.
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. In 1535, Almagro set out on a march that was incredible in its hardships—south through the freezing cordillera of the Andes, probably as far as Coquimbo in present Chile, and then, after finding no gold, back north through the desert wastes of AtacamaAtacama Desert
, arid region, c.600 mi (970 km) long, N Chile, extending south from the border of Peru. The desert itself, c.2,000 ft (610 m) above sea level, is a series of dry salt basins flanked on the W by the Pacific coastal range, averaging c.
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. He believed Cuzco was within his jurisdiction and so seized (1537) the city from Hernando PizarroPizarro, Hernando
, fl. 1530–60, Spanish conquistador, half-brother of Francisco Pizarro. Much older than his half-brothers, Francisco, Juan, and Gonzalo, and, unlike them, legitimate by birth and educated, Hernando accompanied Francisco from Spain in 1530.
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, whom he injudiciously set free. Civil war ensued, and Almagro's forces were defeated. Almagro begged for his life and was promised it, but he was garroted by orders of Hernando Pizarro. Almagro's half–Native American son, Diego de Almagro (d. 1542), inherited his rights. Later the youth nominally headed the revolt that began with the assassination of Francisco Pizarro, but in 1542 he was captured and executed by the new governor, Vaca de CastroVaca de Castro, Cristóbal
, fl. 1540–45, Spanish colonial administrator in Peru. A judge of the royal audiencia at Valladolid, he was chosen by Charles V to restore order between the Pizarro and the Almagro factions. He was a man of integrity, sagacity, and courage.
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