Almeida, Francisco de


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Almeida, Francisco de

(frənsēsh`ko͝o dĭ älmā`də), c.1450–1510, Portuguese admiral, first viceroy of Portuguese India. He was first sent to India in 1503 as captain major of a fleet and helped Portuguese forces defeat the ruler of Calicut. In 1505 he was appointed viceroy and set out from Lisbon with instructions to develop Portuguese commerce by building fortifications on the east coast of Africa, concluding alliances with the Indian rulers, and taking control of the spice trade from the Arabs. In Africa he built forts at Kilwa and Sofala and burned Mombasa. After his arrival in India he built further forts but relied mainly on his fleets to secure control of all sea trade. The Egyptians, seeing their commerce threatened, built a fleet (with the help of Venice) and defeated and killed (1508) Almeida's son at Chaul. However, in 1509, Almeida won a great naval battle against them and their Indian allies off Diu. Almeida at first refused to yield his power to Afonso de AlbuquerqueAlbuquerque, Afonso de
, 1453–1515, Portuguese admiral, the effective founder of the Portuguese Empire in the East. He first went to India in 1503, and in 1506 he set out for India again, to assume command from Francisco de Almeida in command.
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 and had Albuquerque imprisoned (1509), but he later gave him command. On his way home to Portugal, Almeida was killed by Khoikhoi near the Cape of Good Hope.

Bibliography

See K. G. Jayne, Vasco da Gama and His Successors (1910).

Almeida, Francisco de

 

Born circa 1450 in Lisbon; died Mar. 1, 1510, near the Cape of Good Hope. Portuguese navigator.

From 1505 to 1509, Almeida was the first Portuguese viceroy in India, and his residence was the Portuguese fortress in Cochin. He strove to assure a monopoly for Portuguese trade with the Indian states by establishing supremacy at sea and by liquidating local shipping. He built forts in Cananor and on the island of Angediva. In 1509, off the island of Diu, Almeida defeated the Egyptian sultan’s fleet, which had been sent to drive the Portuguese out of the Indian Ocean.