Almoravides


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Almoravides

 

the name used in literature for the dynasty and feudal state (from the middle of the 11th century until 1146) which came into being during the course of the movement of the Berber tribes of North Africa and was headed by Abdullah ibn Yasin. The movement was centered in Mauritania, where the ribat (monastery) of Abdullah ibn Yasin was located. His followers were called al-Murabitun, which means “the people of the ribat” (in Spanish, Almoravides). They had to lead the life of hermits and study the art of war in preparation for the struggle against “enemies of the faith.” The military command was in the hands of the emirs of the Lamtun tribe, specifically Yahya ibn Omar (died 1056) and then his brother Abu Bakr ibn Omar (1059–1087 or 1088). “Lamtuna,” the old name for the Almoravides, is derived from that of the Lamtun tribe. By the middle of the 11th century the Almoravides had subjugated southern Morocco and were continuing their conquests, which were accompanied by the physical annihilation of the so-called infidels and apostates and by a struggle against unjust rulers and “illegal taxes.” This struggle secured for the Almoravides the support of the masses and contributed to the rapid success of the movement. In 1061, Yusuf ibn-Tashfin removed his uncle Abu Bakr ibn Omar from the leadership of the movement, took the title of Emir al-Muslimin, and after the death of Abu Bakr became the religious and secular head of the Almoravides. By 1090 the Almoravides had subjugated Muslim Spain. Marrakech was the capital of the state that comprised Morocco, western Algeria, Spain, and the Balearic Islands.

The requisitions and excesses of the troops and rulers, especially under the successors of ibn-Tashfin (Ali ibn Yusuf, who ruled 1106–43; Tashfin ibn Ali, 1143–45; Ibrahim ibn Tashfin, 1145—46; and Ishak ibn Ali, 1146), gave rise to broad discontent which was further increased by religious intolerance. All these factors weakened the state of the Almoravides, which was unable to resist the Almohads.

REFERENCE

Julien, C. A. Istoriia Severnoi Afriki, vol. 2, ch. 3. Moscow, 1961. (Translated from French; bibliography.)

N. A. IVANOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Vincent Lagardere, "La haute judicature a Pepoque Almoravide en al-Andalus," al-Qantara 7 (1986): 207.
12) Obviamente la relacion con los Omeyas, teniendo el califato como su edad de oro, fue mejor que la relacion con los almoravides y, posteriormente, con los almohades.
3) La situacion para los iberomusulmanes se recrudeceria a finales del siglo XI, cuando al-Andalus se convierte en una provincia almoravide gobernada desde Marrakesh.
Marrakech des almohades et des almoravides, ces hommes a l'egal des heros mythiques, saura-t-elle en tirer l'interet qu'il faut et se faire valoir un peu plus ?
beaucoup moins que]Les veritables invasions musulmanes se sont produites des siecles plus tard, lorsque, assieges par des chretiens, les andalous ont fait appel pour venir a leur aides aux Almohades, Almoravides et Merinides qui etaient venus dans la peninsule a partir du XIe siecle[beaucoup plus grand que], rappelle l'auteur.
Un ami expert de la religion m'a fourni une note a ce sujet dont voici la teneur: [beaucoup moins que]Les relations entre le Maroc et le Mali qui s'appelait avant l'independance le 22 septembre 1960, Blad Es Soudane: nom que les almoravides avaient donne au delta du Niger avec Tombouctou comme ville de reference.
Tiznit plus exactement de la medersa El Ouaggaguia a Aglou, est le point de depart de la fondation de la dynastie des Almoravides.