alternative medicine

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Related to Alternative medicines: complementary medicine

alternative medicine,

the treatment and prevention of disease by techniques that are regarded by modern Western medicine as scientifically unproven or unorthodox. The term alternative medicine can encompass a wide range of therapies, including chiropracticchiropractic
[Gr.,=doing by hand], medical practice based on the theory that all disease results from a disruption of the functions of the nerves. The principal source of interference is thought to be displacement (or subluxation) of vertebrae of the spine, although other areas
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, homeopathyhomeopathy
, system of medicine whose fundamental principle is the law of similars—that like is cured by like. It was first given practical application by Samuel Hahnemann of Leipzig, Germany, in the early 19th cent.
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, naturopathynaturopathy
or naturopathic medicine,
branch of alternative medicine concerned with holistic and noninvasive methods of treating illness and maintaining health.
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, acupunctureacupuncture
, technique of traditional Chinese medicine, in which a number of very fine metal needles are inserted into the skin at specially designated points. For thousands of years acupuncture has been used, along with herbal medicine, for pain relief and treatment of various
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, herbal medicineherbal medicine,
use of natural plant substances (botanicals) to treat and prevent illness. The practice has existed since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine for perhaps as much as 80% of the world's population.
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, meditation, biofeedbackbiofeedback,
method for learning to increase one's ability to control biological responses, such as blood pressure, muscle tension, and heart rate. Sophisticated instruments are often used to measure physiological responses and make them apparent to the patient, who then tries
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, massage therapy, and various "new age" therapies such as guided imagery and naturopathy. Although many alternative therapies have long been widely employed in the treatment of disease, the scientifically oriented modern medical establishment has typically been skeptical about, and sometimes strongly opposed to, their use. Despite this, Americans spend billions of dollars on alternative treatments each year. In 1993 the U.S. National Institutes of Health established the Office of Alternative Medicine to examine the merits of such techniques. See also holistic medicineholistic medicine,
system of health care based on a concept of the "whole" person as one whose body, mind, spirit, and emotions are in balance with the environment. Stressing personal responsibility for health, a holistic approach may include conventional medicine and various
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.

alternative medicine

therapeutic practices based on understandings of the human organism, the disease process and its treatment, which are different to those held by Western scientific medicine. Conceptualizing alternative medicine thus always implies some under standing of the principle features of orthodox 'S cientific’ treatment. These are usually held to be:
  1. a mechanical/materialistic understanding of the body and of disease;
  2. a doctrine of ‘specific etiology’, i.e. that all disease is caused by specific material pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, defective genes, etc;
  3. a vigorous interventionist therapeutic stance using surgery or chemical drugs to correct, oppose or reverse the disease process;
  4. patient passivity and compliance with the regimen dictated by an expert profession.

Proceeding in this way towards a ‘negative’ definition of alternative medicine, however, has its dangers as it suggests a unity within both fields which is in fact absent. If regular medicine is materialistic, therapeutically aggressive, etc. (and it sometimes, but not always, is), then it is too easy to assume that all alternative approaches subscribe to opposite principles: viz: a holistic understanding of the body and disease, involving an indissoluble unity of mind and body; a 'S ympathetic’ therapeutic stance, aimed at enhancing the body's own healing processes; a cooperative relationship between therapist and patient; and an active role for the patient in regaining health. While some systems of alternative medicine do exhibit these features (for example, homeopathy), others (such as chiropractic) do not.

Sociological work on alternative medicine is a recent development, and has tended to focus on four main areas:

  1. rather than accepting therapeutic principles at ‘face value’, interest has been shown in the social processes underlying the negotiation of the legitimacy of therapeutic principles, and of medical knowledge in general (thus the regular/alternative boundary is not fixed only by epistemological criteria, but is also historically fluid, and contingent on issues of professional power);
  2. issues of organization and professionalization;
  3. the resurgence of popular (and regular medical) interest in alternative medicine (involving a complex of reasons, all related in some way to a recognition of the damaging effects of science and technology – it is no accident that interest in green politics and green medicine have emerged more or less together);
  4. the increasing interaction between regular and alternative practitioners, and the incorporation of alternative therapy into regular practice (processes which have led to the use of the term ‘complementary therapy’ rather than ‘alternative therapy’).
References in periodicals archive ?
Alternative medicine is therapy or treatment that is used instead of conventional medical treatment.
When one of these systems of medicine is used as a substitute of Western conventional medicine, it is referred to as alternative medicine, as it is an alternative way of treating a medical condition.
Table 10: Alternative Medicine Market in the US (2011):Percentage Breakdown of Usage by Type of Disease - Back Pain,Neck Pain, Joint Pain, Arthritis, Cold, Cholesterol, andOthers 59Growth Drivers 59Market Trends 60Cost - A Major Growth Driver 60Demographic Drivers 60Table 11: Percentage of US Population Using Complementaryand Alternative Medicine (CAM) by Race and Ethnicity (2011) 60
She carries out experiments in what the BBC are claiming is the most authoritative investigation into alternative medicines ever conducted on television.
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) was established at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in 1998 by Congress to stimulate, develop, and support research on CAM to benefit the public (NIH, 2000a).
The term complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) was developed by the National Institutes of Health to represent a wide range of healing philosophies and therapies generally not taught in medical schools, not administered in hospitals, and not reimbursed by insurance.
After centuries of being in the shadows, alternative medicine is popular again and for a good reason: people who subscribe to it are living longer and better.
The report includes an analysis of the market size, market drivers, market trends and distribution as well as an overview of the industry structure and profiles of the leading manufacturers of complimentary and alternative medicines and consideration of the treatment/practitioner industry.
Thomson Medstat's 2006 consumer healthcare survey asked 23,000 adults about their use of alternative medicine and found that:
on CN8, The Comcast Network, host Suzanne Roberts explores alternative medicine with the experts, and learns how many individuals are discovering the positive affects of holistic treatments.
and reliable information for consumer use of alternative medicines.
The concept was originally a database of nutritional remedies for heart disease and approximately a dozen other killer diseases and has now become the world's largest electronic encyclopedia of alternative medicine.

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