Alvarado, Juan Bautista

Alvarado, Juan Bautista

(hwän boutēs`tä älvärä`thō), 1809–82, governor of Alta CaliforniaAlta California
, term used by the Spanish to refer to their possessions along the entire Pacific coast north of the Mexican state of Baja California. California was often represented on maps as an island some 3,000 mi (4,800 km) long until the 18th-century explorations of the
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 (1836–42), b. Monterey, Calif. Out of the chaotic times in the neglected Mexican province of Alta California, Alvarado emerged as a brilliant politician. After a small but successful revolt in 1836, he declared California an independent state with himself as governor. He pacified his opponents in San Diego and Los Angeles, but the southern faction continued to view the northern upstart with suspicion until he secured (1838) regular appointment as Mexican governor. He and his uncle, Mariano Guadalupe VallejoVallejo, Mariano Guadalupe,
1807–90, Mexican-American political and military leader, b. Monterey, Calif. He entered the Mexican military in 1824 and was appointed to the territorial legislature in 1829.
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, who acted as military commander, could not accomplish much, and after they disagreed both men were removed in 1842. Alvarado was one of the leaders of a new and successful revolt in 1844–45, but the new government was unable to withstand the Bear Flag Revolt and the Mexican WarMexican War,
1846–48, armed conflict between the United States and Mexico. Causes

While the immediate cause of the war was the U.S. annexation of Texas (Dec., 1845), other factors had disturbed peaceful relations between the two republics.
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.