Ambroise Pare


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Paré, Ambroise

(äNbrwäz` pärā`), c.1510–1590, French surgeon. Serving in the army, he revived the use of ligature instead of cautery with boiling oil and continued to devise and champion more humane treatments in medicine. He promoted the use of artificial limbs and introduced podalic version in childbirth, i.e., the manipulation of the fetus so that it is delivered feet first. He was surgeon to four kings of France, and his works were widely translated.

Bibliography

See bibliography of his works by J. Doe (1937).

Paré, Ambroise

 

Born 1517 (according to some data, 1509 or 1510) in Bourg-Hersent, near the city of Laval; died Dec. 20, 1590, in Paris. French surgeon of the Renaissance.

Paré did not receive an academic education and belonged to the barbers’ guild. In 1563 he became surgeon to the king and head of the surgical department of Hôtel Dieu.

In 1537 Paré replaced the practice of cauterizing wounds with balsam—a boiling resinous solution—by the method of applying oil and egg yolk to wounds and bandaging them with clean cloth. In 1557 he replaced the practices of cautery, torsion, and compression of blood vessels by the method of ligation and thereby decreased the incidence of hemorrhages. His works on gunshot wounds, trephination of the skull, and other subjects are well-known. Paré was the first to describe, in 1552, fracture of the neck of the femur and its treatment. He improved the methodology of amputation of limbs and proposed a number of complex orthopedic prostheses, including artificial limbs and joints. He restored the obstetrical practice of podalic version, which had been forgotten for centuries.

The work of Paré and of his successors and their contemporaries, including F. Würtz in Switzerland and W. Fabry (Fabricius Hildanus) in Germany, led to the transformation of surgery during the 17th and 18th centuries from a craft to a scientific medical discipline.

P. E. ZABLUDOVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
Uma figura inserida por Ambroise Pare, na sua Introduction ou entree a la vraye cognoissance de la chirurgie, estabelecia uma correspondencia entre o sangue e o ar quente e umido; a fleuma e a agua fria e umida; a cholera e o fogo quente e seco; e finalmente entre o humor melancolico e a terra fria e seca.
In a bid to assess the risks, Russian virologists earlier visited two Guinean hospitals -- Clinique Ambroise Pare and the Donka Hospital -- in the stricken capital Conakry, in West Africa.
Ambroise Pare, the early modern surgeon, expresses "physical repugnance" not at the practice of corpse pharmacology but at the ignoble rank of the bodies used.
French Army barber/surgeon Ambroise Pare (1510-1590) is considered by many to be the father of modern amputation surgery and prosthetic design.
David Elkharrat, Emergency Medico-surgery Department at Ambroise Pare Hospital, Boulogne Billancourt, France.
For clinicians and scientists in pulmonology, cardiology, endocrinology, and neurology, as well as sleep specialists and general practitioners, Lurie (sleep laboratory, Centre Medico-Chirurgical Ambroise Pare, France) reviews current knowledge on the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adults.
PHILIP CARBERRY left the Ambroise Pare hospital in Paris yesterday afternoon after a stay of two days following a fall at Auteuil on Tuesday that has ruled him out for at least six weeks, writes Desmond Stoneham.
Flahault); Hopital Ambroise Pare, Boulogne Billancourt, France (T.
1) Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology and (2) Mobile Geriatrics Team, Hopital Ambroise Pare, 92100, Boulogne-Billancourt, and University of Versailles, UVSQ, France
All of this agrees with what Ambroise Pare and other teratologists of the Renaissance identified with the monster and gives Cervantes an excuse to populate his book with a myriad of extraordinary beings that, like the hybrid Quijano/Quijote, challenge the moral, ontological, and epistemological categories of seventeenth-century Spain and demand to be exhibited and marveled at like the mad hidalgo from La Mancha.
While surveying a broad range of sources over a long history, Luke Demaitre pays close attention to the classic texts of Galen, Aretaeus, and Avicenna along with dozens of later writers, especially Bernard de Gordon in the fourteenth century, Ambroise Pare in the sixteenth, and Isaac Uddman in the eighteenth.