Amenhotep


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Related to Amenhotep: Imhotep, Amenhotep IV, Amenhotep II

Amenhotep

 

Name of Egyptian pharaohs of the 18th dynasty in ancient Egypt.

Amenhotep III Ruled circa 1455–1419 B.C. At the beginning of his reign the military might of Egypt, which had become the predominant power in the eastern Mediterranean, had reached its zenith. The realm of Amenhotep III extended from the upper reaches of the Euphrates in the north to the fourth cataract of the Nile in the south. The kings of Babylon, Cyprus, and the Mitanni paid him homage, as witnessed by the documents of the Tel-el-Amarna archive. Internal contradictions and the onslaught of the Hittites somewhat weakened the country during the last years of his reign and led to unrest in the Asian possessions. Under Amenhotep III the sumptuous temple of Amon-Ra at Luxor and his own mortuary temple with huge statues of himself—the colossi of Memnon—were built. (The Leningrad sphinxes also come from the tomb of Amenhotep III.)

Amenhotep IV (Ikhnaton). The son of Amenhotep III; ruled 1419–circa 1400 B.C. He attempted to break the power of the old aristocracy and the priesthood that was closely associated with the cult of the Theban deity Amon-Ra as well as with the local nomic cults. He prohibited the worship of Amon, confiscated the possessions of the Theban temple, and proclaimed the new state cult of the god Aton. He made the new city of Akhetaton, the contemporary site of El-Amarna, the new capital of the state. The pharaoh took the name of Ikhnaton, meaning “useful to Aton.” Under Amenhotep IV the local temples became desolate. Sumptuous temples were built in honor of Aton, and a new priesthood, devoted to the reformer pharaoh, made its appearance. Under Amenhotep IV, Egypt began to lose its dominion over Syria and Palestine. Some Syrian princes attempted to obtain the support of the Hittites for the struggle against Egypt. The incursions of the nomadic tribes of the Habiru into the Asian domains of Egypt further complicated the situation. The circumstances of Amenhotep IV’s death are unknown. The series of official records with his name comes abruptly to an end in 1402; subsequent years of reign are probably ascribed to him by mistake.

REFERENCES

Mat’e, M. E. Vo vremena Nefertiti. [Leningrad-Moscow, 1965.] Perepelkin, Iu. Ia. Perevorot Amen-khotpa IV. Moscow, 1967.

I. A. STUCHEVSKII

Amenhotep

(fl. 14th century B.C.) pictured as bearded man holding papyrus roll. [Ancient Egypt. Art: Parrinder, 18]
See: Wisdom
References in periodicals archive ?
LUXOR, Egypt: Archaeologists unveiled two colossal statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in Egypt's famed temple city of Luxor Sunday, adding to an existing pair of world-renowned tourist attractions.
Archaeologists on Sunday unveiled two colossal statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III in Egypt's famed temple city of Luxor, adding to an existing pair of world-renowned tourist attractions.
There are at present trends by different scholars (Felix Hoflmayer, Sturt Manning) to use maximal dates for some kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty such as Thutmose II, Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV in order to stretch the beginning of the New Kingdom back to nearly 1580 BC while at the same time trying to bring down the radiocarbon chronology of the Minoan eruption to shortly before 1600 BC.
For example, the beef ribs buried with the in-laws of Pharaoh Amenhotep III around 1350 B.
In the 14 th century BCE, the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaten and moved the capital from Thebes to an uninhabited strip of desert hundreds of miles north.
Venezuelan Ambassador to Tehran Amenhotep Zambrano along with several other officials from both countries attended the ceremony.
Riaan Booysen seeks to tell the story of the Thera volcano's unrest, and how the Amenhotep III, ordered a sacrifice of all the first born to appease the Gods, and how his own first born was saved .
That was a temple which Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III built for his wife Queen Tiye, grandmother of the boy pharaoh Tutankhamen.
They belonged to a housewife called Merit and her husband Kha, who was an architect to Joann's favourite pharaoh, Amenhotep III.
But most exciting for her is that she's able to gain access to the final resting place of Amenhotep the Third in the Valley of the Kings.
One such king was Amenhotep III, who ruled Egypt between 1797 and 1892 BCE and had a dam constructed in the Fayoum near Lahun to maintain the water of the Nile in Lake Qarun.
In early January, Italian scientists excavating under the mortuary temple of Pharaoh Amenhotep II came across a collection of tombs hiding human bones, the remains of wooden sarcophagi, and jars used many centuries ago to store the organs of the deceased.