Amenhotep III

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Amenhotep III

(ä'mĕnhō`tĕp, ā'–) or

Amenophis III

(ă'mĕnō`fĭs), d. c.1372 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty. He succeeded his father, Thutmose IVThutmose IV
or Thothmes IV
, reigned c.1406–1398 B.C., king of ancient Egypt, of the XVIII dynasty, son and successor of Amenhotep II. He invaded Asia and Nubia, and formed alliances with independent kings neighboring his Syrian tributaries.
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, c.1411 B.C. His reign marks the culmination and the start of the decline of the XVIII dynasty. It was the age of Egypt's greatest splendor; there was peace in his Asian empire (in spite of incursions by Bedouins and Hittites), and he invaded Nubia only once. This was the period of extreme elaboration in Egyptian architecture and sculpture. Amenhotep III built extensively at Thebes, Luxor, and Karnak. His wife TiyTiy
, fl. 1385 B.C., queen of ancient Egypt, wife of Amenhotep III. Of humble origin, she was remarkable for her influence in state affairs in the reigns of her husband and of Ikhnaton, her son.
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 was given an unprecedented position as queen consort and exerted much influence over her husband and his son and successor, IkhnatonIkhnaton
or Akhenaton
[Egyptian,=Aton is satisfied], d. c.1354 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (c.1372–1354 B.C.), of the XVIII dynasty; son and successor of Amenhotep III. His name at his accession was Amenhotep IV, but he changed it to honor the god Aton.
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 (Amenhotep IV). The sources of the "solar monotheism" of the god Aton, elaborated by Ikhnaton, may be traced to the reign of Amenhotep III. Tablets found at Tell el AmarnaTell el Amarna
or Tel el Amarna
, ancient locality, Egypt, near the Nile and c.60 mi (100 km) N of Asyut. Ikhnaton's capital, Akhetaton, was in Tell el Amarna. About 400 tablets with inscriptions in Akkadian cuneiform were found there in 1887.
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 shed light on the sociopolitical conditions in Egypt and Asia Minor in the 14th cent. B.C.

Bibliography

See biographies by J. Fletcher (2000) and A. P. Kozloff (2011); study by D. O'Connor (2001).

Amenhotep III

, Amenhotpe III
Greek name Amenophis. ?1411--?1375 bc, Egyptian pharaoh who expanded Egypt's influence by peaceful diplomacy and erected many famous buildings