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The strongest predictor was a positive relationship with total shrub cover, suggesting that American Robins prefer well-developed, dense shrublands, although we found few in early successional forests.
American Robins are known to be infected by a large number of parasites including coccidia, trematodes, nematodes, cestodes, and acanthocephalans (Welte and Kirkpatrick 1986).
We found northern cardinals, rather than American robins, to be the predominant hosts of Cx.
Foraging observations (foraging attempts = 469) of American Robins resulted in winter diets consisting of 65% fruit and 35% invertebrates.
Dawn songs Dusk songs Masking species masked masked Unidentified 10 17 Gray Catbird 20 6 Ovenbird 16 8 Wood Thrush 11 4 American Robin 3 5 Tufted Titmouse 4 2 Red-eyed Vireo 6 0 Common Yellowthroat 1 2 Red-bellied Woodpecker 2 1 Black-capped Chickadee 2 0 Blue-headed Vireo 1 0 Barred Owl 1 0 Rose-breasted Grosbeak 1 0
restuans predominantly feed on avian hosts and focus their feeding activity on several key bird species that can support WNV transmission, in particular, American robins, gray catbirds, and house sparrows.
Video recording reveals the method of ejection of Brown-Headed Cowbird eggs and no cost in American Robins and Gray Catbirds.
Poor VecTest sensitivity was also recorded in small numbers of Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) (0/6), American Robins (Turdus migratorius) (3/16), and Fish Crows (Corers ossifragus) (2/10).
Even more plasticity was reported in a recent, large study of American Robins wherein females were presumed to begin incubating at any time within a 7-day span, from 4 days after clutch completion to 2 days prior (Rowe and Weatherhead 2009).
Frequent timed counts over 2 hrs produced an estimated total of 25,000 birds dominated by American Robins (Turdus migratorius), Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum), and Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata).
1) presents interesting results, not only on the ability of American robins to transmit Lyme disease spirochetes but also on the birds' tolerance to reinfection after the original infectivity has waned.
The call bouts of American Robins giving sects lasted on average 186 [+ or -] 49.

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