Native American music

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Native American music.

The music of Native North Americans is primarily a vocal art, usually choral, although some nations favor solo singing. Native American music is entirely melodic; there is no harmony or polyphony, although there is occasional antiphonal singing between soloist and chorus. The melody is, in general, characterized by a descending melodic figure; its rhythm is irregular. There is no conception of absolute pitch and intonation can appear uncertain, the result of the distinctive method of voice production, involving muscular tension in the vocal apparatus and making possible frequent strong accents and glissandos. Singing is nearly always accompanied, at least by drums. Various types of drums and rattles are the chief percussion instruments. Wind instruments are mainly flutes and whistles.

For the Native American, song is traditionally the chief means of communicating with the supernatural powers, and music is seldom performed for its own sake; definite results, such as the bringing of rain, success in battle, or the curing of the sick, are expected from music. There are three classes of songs—traditional songs, handed down from generation to generation; ceremonial and medicine songs, supposed to be received in dreams; and modern songs, showing the influence of European culture. Songs of heroes are often old, adapted to the occasion by the insertion of the new hero's name. Love songs often are influenced by the music of whites and are regarded as degenerate by many Native Americans.

See also North American Native artNorth American Native art,
diverse traditional arts of Native North Americans. In recent years Native American arts have become commodities collected and marketed by nonindigenous Americans and Europeans.
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; Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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.

Bibliography

See F. Densmore, The American Indians and Their Music (rev. ed. 1936); C. Kaywood, A Bibliography of North American Folklore and Folksong (1951); C. Hofman, American Indians Sing (1967); and many books by F. Densmore on music of individual tribes (most repr. 1972).

References in periodicals archive ?
Such a remark needs to be understood in the context of its times; Grove had no doubts that the art of Bach, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Schubert was peerless and far superior to the music of earlier times and of other, less "civilized" parts of the world, even though by the time he was writing, the beginnings of comparative musicology were stirring in Berlin, Fewkes and others were collecting Amerindian music, and--indeed, a century earlier--enlightened British colonial officials had begun the serious, not patronizing, collection and inve stigation of Indian music.
Two chapters take up the power that Amerindian music and jazz (with side reference to the mid-nineteenth-century New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk, and to George Gershwin) exerted over the minds of Europeans.
Sullivan concludes that European composers carved out musical compositions based on their idea of the New World while deeply affected by several aspects of America--black spirituals, Amerindian music, Poe's and Whitman's poetry, the vast openness of the western prairies, the harsh vigor of the urban landscape.