Amiens, Treaty of

Amiens, Treaty of,

1802, peace treaty signed by France, Spain, and the Batavian RepublicBatavian Republic,
name for the Netherlands in the years (1795–1806) following conquest by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The United Provinces of the Netherlands were reconstituted as the Batavian Republic in 1795 and remained under French occupation and
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 on the one hand and Great Britain on the other. It is generally regarded as marking the end of the French Revolutionary WarsFrench Revolutionary Wars,
wars occurring in the era of the French Revolution and the beginning of the Napoleonic era, the decade of 1792–1802. The wars began as an effort to defend the Revolution and developed into wars of conquest under the empire.
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 and setting the stage for the Napoleonic Wars (see Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
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). By its terms England was to give up most conquests made in the wars and France was to evacuate Naples and restore Egypt to the Ottoman Empire. England retained Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Trinidad but abandoned its claim to the French throne. The peace, though much acclaimed, lasted barely a year; in 1803, England refused to restore Malta to the Knights Hospitalers, thereby causing a resumption of hostilities.

Amiens, Treaty of

 

signed on Mar. 27, 1802, between England on one side and France and its allies, Spain and the Batavian Republic, on the other. This treaty completed the disintegration of the Second Coalition (in Russian, the Second Anti-French Coalition). By the terms of the Treaty of Amiens, England pledged to surrender to France and its allies all the colonies (except Ceylon and Trinidad) it had seized from them and to remove its troops from the island of Malta, which was to be returned to the Order of St. John. The independence and neutrality of Malta were guaranteed by France, England, Russia, Austria, Spain, and Prussia. France pledged to remove its forces from Rome, Naples, and the island of Elba. Both parties to the treaty guaranteed the integrity of the possessions of Turkey, a guarantee which meant the evacuation of the French forces from Egypt. The Treaty of Amiens was a brief respite in the Anglo-French struggle for world predominance. In 1803 the hostilities resumed.

REFERENCE

Martens, G. F. Recueil de traités d’alliance, de paix. . . , vol. 7. Göttingen, 1808. Page 404.