amino sugar

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Amino sugar

A sugar in which one or more nonglycosidic hydroxyl groups is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group. The most abundant example is d -glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy- d -glucose) [see illustration].

Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)enlarge picture
Structural formula of D -glucosamine (α-pyranose ring form)

A linear polymer of N-acetyl- d -glucosamine is widely distributed as chitin, the exoskeletal material of arthropods. The glycoproteins of higher animals, which are components of the proteoglycans of cartilage and skin, consist of polysaccharides that are generally sulfated and have N-acetylated glucosamine or galactosamine alternating with a uronic acid.

Amino sugars are important constituents of glycoproteins and oligosaccharides involved in biological recognition. Amino sugars of the greatest structural diversity are found in microorganisms as constituents of cell walls, in antigenic carbohydrates produced at the cell surface, and as antibiotic substances secreted from the cell. Streptomycin is the first demonstrated example of numerous amino-sugar-containing antibiotics produced notably by Actinomycetes (bacteria). See Chitin, Glycoprotein, Oligosaccharide, Polysaccharide

amino sugar

[ə¦mē·nō ¦shu̇g·ər]
(biochemistry)
A monosaccharide in which a non-glycosidic hydroxyl group is replaced by an amino or substituted amino group; an example isD-glucosamine.
References in periodicals archive ?
Parsons JW (1981) Chemistry and distribution of amino sugars in soils and soil organisms.
They found that the distribution of amino sugar N was higher in agricultural soils non-responsive to N fertilization, such as those that had been manured, than in N-fertilizer-responsive soils, and was useful in estimating soil-N availability.
Amino sugar N is strongly associated with microbial activity, commonly limited by high carbon to nitrogen ratios in soils.
NeoStrata develops and markets a comprehensive range of clinically-proven, dermatologist developed skin care products featuring unsurpassed technologies which include Glycolics, Polyhydroxy Bionic Acids and the new Amino Sugars, all of which can significantly improve the health and beauty of every skin type.
Different amino sugars derive from different groups of soil microorganisms (Sowden and Ivarson 1974; Parson 1981; Zhang et al.
The objectives of our study were (i) to examine the composition and distribution of lignin, amino sugars, and carbohydrates as revealed by alkaline CuO oxidation and hydrochloric acid and trifluoroacetic acid hydrolyses, respectively; and (ii) to evaluate the transformation of chemical structures of carbon during the decomposition of SOM under tropical conditions along a decomposition gradient within a given site (depth profiles) and between sites (different management systems).
As hypothesized, clay content had a positive effect on the retention of amino sugars.
A daily supplement of the amino sugars glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate will stimulate cartilage production and improve joint function, while a multivitamin will help keep bones healthy.
They utilized fluorescamine labeling to identify amine-containing biomarker compounds, including amino acids, amino sugars, and nucleobases.
These plaHARD products were developed with a synergistic blend of herbs, enzymes and natural amino sugars to promote physical well-being, enhance mental activity and promote healthy joints and muscles.
Today, NeoStrata continues to develop and to license its extensive portfolio of patented technology including polyhydroxy acids (PHAs) and the bionic acids, as well as novel N-acetyl amino sugars and N-acetyl amino acids for cosmetic, OTC and Rx applications.
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