Transaminase

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Related to Aminotransferases: aspartate aminotransferase, Transaminases

transaminase

[¦tranz′am·ə‚nās]
(biochemistry)
One of a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the amino group of an amino acid to a keto acid to form another amino acid. Also known as aminotransferase.

Transaminase

 

(also aminotransferase and aminopherase), an enzyme of the transferase group that catalyzes the transfer of an amino group (—NH2) from an α-amino acid to an α-keto acid. Transaminases are found in most animal and plant tissues and play an important part in nitrogen metabolism. The role of transaminase in the transamination process was discovered by the Soviet biochemists A. E. Braunshtein and M. G. Kritsman in 1937. The coenzyme in transaminase reactions is pyridoxal phosphate, the aldehyde group of which serves as intermediate acceptor of the amino group. The resulting pyridoxamine phosphate transfers the amino group to the ketone group of the acid undergoing amination. The reaction is reversible.

A. A. BOLDYREV

References in periodicals archive ?
In chicks, the lowering of blood aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities was found to be specific for vitamin [B.
Abnormal elevations of liver function test results, including elevated serum aminotransferase concentrations, have been reported in trials of other endothelin receptor antagonists.
However, the patient was first noted to have elevated aminotransferases 2 weeks after her 6-MP dose was increased, before she had been exposed to ciprofloxacin.
Laboratory studies revealed an isolated increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (3) that prompted consultation with a hepatologist.
In contrast, the incidence of high aminotransferase concentrations, as surrogate markers of NAFLD, was recently reported to be ~30 new incident cases per 1000 person-years in a cohort of Japanese healthy individuals (age 35 years) who were free of NAFLD at baseline (5).
When those in the highest aminotransferase quartile were compared with those in the lower three quartiles, the odds ratio for developing diabetes was 1.
In the United States, Hepsera is indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.
Food and Drug Administration approved Hepsera for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in adults with evidence of active viral replication and either evidence of persistent elevations in serum aminotransferases (ALT or AST) or histologically active disease.
Aminotransferase levels remained in normal range while on niacin, although slightly higher.
Laboratory data included test results for bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), all viral hepatitis serologic assays, rheumatoid factor, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody at the time of diagnosis.
7 percent) of the 224 patients experienced aminotransferase elevations greater than three times ULN during the 24-week study period.
Healthy volunteers were defined by analysis of various biochemical tests, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) /AST, albumin, bilirubin, [gamma]-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which were performed on a Hitachi 747 (Roche Diagnostics).