Ammunition


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ammunition

[‚am·yə′ni·shən]
(ordnance)
All kinds of missiles to be thrown against an enemy.
Missiles not for direct use against an enemy, with such purposes as illumination, signaling, and decelerating.
A complete round and all its components, that is, the material required for firing a weapon such as a pistol.

Ammunition

 

articles of weaponry designed to hit enemy manpower, destroy his combat materiel, demolish fortifications and structures, and carry out other missions (illuminate the terrain, drop agitational literature). The action of most ammunition is based on the utilization of the energy given off by explosive substances, which causes the destruction (demolition, annihilation) of various targets.

Among the types of ammunition are nuclear ammunition; artillery rounds and infantry mortar rounds; rocket shells; rounds with rocket artillery projectiles, mines, and shells; antitank guided missiles; aerial bombs; rifle cartridges; hand and rifle grenades; explosive devices; charges of explosives; mines; naval mines; torpedoes; illumination and signal rounds; and others. Also included in ammunition are particular elements of the ammunition itself, such as fuses, powder charges, explosive charges, percussion caps and primer cups (fuses), blasting caps and detonators, igniters, cartridge cases, powder bags, and others.

Ammunition is delivered to the target by being projected from firearms (shells, mortar shells, rifle grenades, bullets), by means of various engines (rocket shell, torpedo), by being dropped on the target from an altitude (aerial bombs), or by being thrown by hand (the hand grenade). Some ammunition is set up on the ground or in the water (mines), and it acts (explodes) on contact with the target or when the target is in the ammunition’s zone of operations. There are types of ammunition (for example, mines) that are set up on the objective to be destroyed and explode after a predetermined time interval or upon a signal given by radio or wire. All ammunition is used just once. Particular elements of the ammunition are an exception; after repair, cartridge cases and the housings of primer cups can be used again.

Waging a battle involves large expenditures of ammunition. For example, in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–05, Russia expended 900,000 artillery rounds. During World War I (1914–18) about 65.3 million artillery rounds were manufactured at Russian plants and imported from abroad. In the Great Patriotic War, during 1943–44 alone, USSR industry manufactured 359 million shells, mines, and aerial bombs. Under current conditions, where the troops are highly saturated with automatic weapons that possess high rates of fire and where various new types of weapons are available, the amount of ammunition necessary to support a battle (or operation) rises sharply.

Necessary stocks of ammunition are established during peacetime, and some of them are used for troop combat training.

REFERENCES

Tret’iakov, G. M. Boepripasy artillerii. Moscow, 1947.
Latukhin, A. N. Boevye upravliaemye rakety. Moscow, 1968.
Organizatsiia i vooruzhenie arntii i flotov kapitalisticheskikh gosudarstv, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1968.

N. I. LAPSHIN

References in classic literature ?
Without demanding a surrender, they furiously assaulted the garrison, which was happily prepared to oppose them; and, after they had expended much ammunition in vain, and killed the cattle round the fort, not being likely to make themselves masters of this place, they raised the siege, and departed in the morning of the third day after they came, with the loss of about thirty killed, and the number of wounded uncertain.
He might fairly have been compared, in action, to a rapid-firing Gatling gun; while Smith was a hundred-ton cannon, and Lockwood was the maker of the ammunition.
Meriem seized the receptacle as the possible container of extra ammunition.
At the same moment the gun exploded behind him, the ammunition blew up, there was fire all about him, and he found himself lying under a heap of charred dead men and dead horses.
Presently few carried anything but their necessary clothing, blankets, haversacks, canteens, and arms and ammunition.
Addressing a few words of heartfelt gratitude to his benefactress, he mounted the green cart and rode out of town, under a discharge of artillery from the school-boys, who found plenty of ammunition in the neighboring clay-pits and mud holes.
The company that can first open its tempting supplies of coffee, tobacco, ammunition, scarlet cloth, blankets, bright shawls, and glittering trinkets has the greatest chance to get all the peltries and furs of the Indians and free trappers, and to engage their services for the next season.
Ere long he tired of wasting his ammunition on a statue, but he did not throw away the shafts--he only kept them quiet in his quiver.
it seems to me that just as the game grows scarce, and a body wants the best ammunition to get a livelihood, everything that’s bad falls on him like a judgment.
These men would set out from Montreal with canoes well stocked with goods, with arms and ammunition, and would make their way up the mazy and wandering rivers that interlace the vast forests of the Canadas, coasting the most remote lakes, and creating new wants and habitudes among the natives.
At once it occurred to Mills that this eccentric youngster was the very person for what the legitimist sympathizers had very much at heart just then: to organize a supply by sea of arms and ammunition to the Carlist detachments in the South.
Our destination, Thuvia said, was a distant storeroom where arms and ammunition in plenty might be found.