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(named from findings at the site of al-Amra in Central Egypt), an Aeneolithic culture (second half of the fifth millennium B.C. to early fourth millennium B.C.) which was widespread over all of Upper Egypt and Central Egypt and expanded to Nubia. Tombs and settlements have been investigated. The social structure of the Amratian culture is characterized by the breakdown of primitive communal relations and the founding of a class society. The basis of the economy was hoe agriculture, cattle raising, and hunting. Work tools were made of stone and bone; copper objects are found. The ceramics are red glazed, frequently with paintings in white. Amratian culture was preceded by Badarian culture, and its extension to Upper Egypt is the Gerzean culture.
REFERENCESChilde, V. Gordon. Drevneishii Vostok v svete novykh raskopok. Moscow, 1956. (Translated from English.)
Petrie, W. M. F. Prehistoric Egypt. London, 1920. Manuel d’archéologie égyptienne, vol. 1. Paris, 1953.
B. B. PIOTROVSKII