Ana Pauker


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Pauker, Ana

 

Born Dec. 12, 1893, in the village of Codieşti, district of Vaslui; died June 26, 1960, in Bucharest. Figure of the Rumanian workers’ movement.

Pauker, the daughter of a peasant, worked as a teacher after graduating from a Gymnasium. From 1915 to 1921 she was in the Social Democratic Party of Rumania (SDPR), and in 1921 she joined the Communist Party of Rumania (CPR). At the Second Congress of the CPR, held in October 1922, she was elected to the party’s Central Committee (CC). From 1928 to 1931, Pauker attended the International Leninist School in Moscow. She then worked in the Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI) until 1934, when she returned to Rumania. In 1935 she joined the secretariat of the CC of the CPR. In 1935, Pauker was arrested and in 1936 sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment. She was released in May 1941 at the demand of world public opinion and with the assistance of the USSR. In 1941 she became the CPR representative to the ECCI, and in 1943 and 1944 she headed the foreign bureau of the CPR.

Pauker returned to Rumania after the country was liberated from fascism in 1944. From 1945 to 1948 she was a member of the politburo and a secretary of the CC of the CPR. After the CPR and the SDPR were merged into the Rumanian Workers’ Party (RWP) in 1948, she was a member of the politburo and a secretary of the CC of the RWP from February 1948 to May 1952. From December 1947 to July 1952, Pauker was minister of foreign affairs.

REFERENCE

Anna Pauker. Bucharest, 1951.
References in periodicals archive ?
The second chapter completes the first one, addressing the process of collectivization in terms of ideology and propaganda it was founded on, by deciphering and interpreting philosophical construction of Marxism as a whole (the works of Marx and Engels, Lenin and Stalin), as well as by analysing, in the general context in which they were launched by Communist leaders, of a vast set of documents including the writings and speeches of Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, Vasile Luca, Ana Pauker, Teohari Georgescu, the plenary reports, conferences and congresses of the party, the programmes concerning the agrarian policy of the Romanian Workers Party, archival information, studies and Articles published in periodicals of the era.
What united them was their fury at Dej's failure at the enlarged PMR plenum (23-25 March 1956) to perform self-criticism (autocritica) and at his focus on the period up to 1952, ignoring the problems that arose after the ousting in that year of the "Stalinist faction" (foreign minister Ana Pauker, finance minister Vasile Luca, and minister of internal affairs Teohari Georgescu).
To regain their trust, Constantinescu resorted to denouncing the safely banished scapegoat, Ana Pauker.
131) The former Romanian minister of foreign affairs, Ana Pauker, although she did her share of manual labor (sewing), studied medicine for two years, in Geneva and Moscow, respectively, and attended the Lenin School in Moscow for two years (1928-1930), in addition to attending primary school for four years and a professional school for another four years, graduating at the top of her class.
Given the prevailing anti-Semitism in Moscow at the rime, it benefited him that he was not Jewish, unlike Ana Pauker, and some of the elites in the international communist movement (for example, Rakosi, Erno Gero, Mihaly Farkas, Jozsef Revai, Roman Zambrowski, Jakub Berman, and Rudolf Slansky).
Inlocuirea definitiva a ultimilor diplomati de cariera cu reprezentantii "clasei muncitoare" a survenit odata cu preluarea conducerii Ministerului Afacerilor Straine de catre Ana Pauker.
Memorialistul Egon Balas, el insusi nou diplomat comunist, scria: "La preluarea ministerului in noiembrie 1947, Ana Pauker daduse afara toti vechii experti "burghezi" pe care i-a inlocuit cu activisti de partid, principalul criteriu de selectie fiind devotamentul lor politic.
Spre sfarsitul vietii lui Stalin, Gheorghiu-Dej a manevrat de asa natura obsesiile antisemite ale liderului de la Kremlin, pentru a obtine permisiunea de epurare din partid a liderilor de origine evreiasca, precum Ana Pauker, Vasile Luca si Teohari Georgescu, acuzati de "cosmopolitism" (daca Ana Pauker a fost doar retinuta la domiciliu, ceilalti doi lideri comunisti au fost arestati iar Vasile Luca a si decedat in inchisoare).
A few months after the liberation of her country, Ana Pauker, the best known, and perhaps the most powerful Rumanian communist at the time, was summoned to Moscow.
Molotov's wife, Polina Zhemchuzhina, herself a prominent party member and incidentally, a close friend of Ana Pauker, had been arrested in 1949, to reemerge from the camps after Stalin's death with her communist faith undiminished.
The young Ana Pauker who joined the socialist movement was by no means exceptional.
Ana Pauker was directly involved in the question of Jewish emigration.