Anaerobiosis


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anaerobiosis

[‚an·ə‚rō′bī·ə·səs]
(biology)
A mode of life carried on in the absence of molecular oxygen.

Anaerobiosis

 

(also anoxybiosis), life in the absence of free oxygen. Anaerobiosis is the usual condition of existence for the anaerobic organisms which obtain energy for vital activities from the decomposition of compound inorganic substances (for example, nitrates and sulfates) or organic substances (for example, carbohydrates).

The concept of anaerobiosis was introduced in 1861 by L. Pasteur, who showed that the microorganisms that cause lactic acid fermentation die in the presence of oxygen. In multicelled animals, anaerobiosis is often only a temporary state which provides for survival during periods when there is no oxygen, and it is accompanied by a sharp decline in metabolism and a transformation to an inactive state. Aerobic organisms also have anaerobic stages in the metabolic processes that are accompanied by the generation of energy. In the tissues of a majority of the multicelled animals, anaerobic carbohydrate conversion occurs chiefly by glycolysis. In rapidly growing embryonic cells and in tumor cells, anaerobic processes are more strongly expressed than in the normal cells of a healthy organism. The processes of anaerobic conversion (fermentation and putrefaction) are of great significance in the circulation of matter in nature.

References in periodicals archive ?
Evidence for glycolytic enzyme binding during anaerobiosis of the foot muscle of Patella caerulea (L.
Physiological role of branch lenticels in willow and poplar under conditions of root anaerobiosis.
Nonetheless, because Cd can bioaccumulate, toxicity thresholds may be reached in the tissues, undermining the biochemical mechanisms that allow the organism to survive severe anaerobiosis.
Facultative anaerobiosis and metabolic arrest during anoxia or hypoxia in molluscs including Crassostrea species is a well-known strategy for survival (Hochachka & Mustafa 1973, Storey 1993), and limited induction of HSP 69 in this study is possibly related to a shift toward anaerobic metabolism.
Long-term anaerobiosis in sublittoral marine invertebrates from the western Baltic Sea: Halicryptus spinulosus (Priapulida), Astarte borealis and Arctica islandica (Bivalvia).
Previous results based on calorimetric measurements of isolated gills indicate that during anaerobiosis the ATP production of L.
Setter TL, Waters I, Sharma SK, Singh KN, Kulshreshtha N, Yaduvanshi NPS, Ram PC, Singh BN, Rane J, McDonald G, Khabaz-Saberi H, Biddulph TB, Wilson R, Barclay I, McLean R, Cakir M (2009) Review of wheat improvement for waterlogging tolerance in Australia and India: the importance of anaerobiosis and element toxicities associated with different soils.
14 - Sets anaerobiosis and microaerophilic - Microbiology;
The LysR-type virulence activator AphB regulates the expression of genes in Vibrio cholerae in response to low pH and anaerobiosis.
Cultivation was carried out using the pour-plate technique, and the plates were incubated, under anaerobiosis, for 72 hours at 37[degrees]C for B.