Turkish language

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Turkish language,

member of the Turkic subdivision of the AltaicAltaic
, subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languages). Some scholars still consider Altaic an independent linguistic family. Spoken by over 130 million people, who occupy parts of a territory that stretches from E Europe across the Central
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 subfamily of the Ural-Altaic family of languages (see Uralic and Altaic languagesUralic and Altaic languages
, two groups of related languages thought by many scholars to form a single Ural-Altaic linguistic family. However, other authorities hold that the Uralic and Altaic groups constitute two unconnected and separate language families.
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). Turkish is the official language of Turkey and one of the official languages of Cyprus. It is spoken by about 55 million people in Turkey and another million in Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, and Macedonia. The speech of educated people in İstanbul is the standard form of the language. Like the other Uralic and Altaic languages, Turkish is characterized by vowel harmony and agglutination. Thus suffixes added to the stem of the verb may indicate passive, reflexive, causative, and other meanings. Postpositions are used instead of prepositions. Both the definite article and grammatical gender are lacking. Turkish was written in the Arabic script following the conversion of the Turks to Islam, but in 1928 the Turkish president, Kemal Atatürk, ordered a change to a modified version of the Roman alphabet. The reform was designed to introduce an alphabet better suited to Turkish than the Arabic script and also to lessen the hold of Islam on Turkey. In the 1930s the Turks attempted to purify their language by eliminating words of foreign, especially Persian and Arabic, origin and to simplify the literary style of the language, making it more similar to colloquial Turkish.

Bibliography

See U. Heyd, Language Reform in Modern Turkey (1954); G. L. Lewis, Turkish Grammar (1967); H. I. Sebüktekin, Turkish-English Contrastive Analysis (1971); E. E. Erguvanli, The Function of Word Order in Turkish Grammar (1984).

References in periodicals archive ?
Uyghur Turkish is not too far from the Anatolian Turkish we speak.
The restaurant specialises in fine Anatolian Turkish cuisine and has been delighting the palates of the island's eating out crowd for the past three years.
The 3rd International Festival of Sea Culture" started with a ceremony held in front of the statue of Emir Caka Bey, founder of the first Anatolian Turkish naval fleet, in central Cesme.
But it cannot be ignored that the decision appears to be part of a wider policy to assimilate Turkish Cypriots into Anatolian Turkish culture.
A sampling of topics: Old Anatolian Turkish poetry in its relationship to the Persian tradition, hybrid names as a special device of Central Asian naming, palatal-velar vocalism of Arabic-Persian loanwords in 16th century Ottoman Turkish, and language change and modeling modal axes--Irano-Turkic convergence.