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the study of the relative positions of the body’s organs and systems under both normal and pathological conditions and as a factor of age, sex, and constitutional differences. Topographic anatomical data form the basis for rational operative access to individual organs.
In the USSR, topographic anatomy and operative surgery together constitute an independent area of instruction—a theoretical medical discipline preparatory to clinical surgery. In addition to generally used methods, topographic anatomy includes the use of frozen or otherwise fixed cadaver sections and roentgenology. As a scientific discipline, topographic anatomy is based on the works of N. I. Pirogov and of such earlier anatomists as I. V. Bui-al’skii. Other anatomists and surgeons who subsequently contributed to this field in Russia and the USSR included A. A. Bobrov, P. I. D’iakonov, V. N. Shevkunenko, S. I. Spasokukotskii, A. V. Martynov, A. V. Vishnevskii, B. V. Petrovskii, V. V. Kovanov, Iu. M. Lopukhin, and B. V. Ognev. In other countries, research and instruction in topographic anatomy fall within the departmental scope of surgery.
REFERENCESPirogov, N. I. Khirurgicheskaia anatomiia arterial’nykh stvolov i fastsii, nos. 1–5. St. Petersburg, 1881–82. (Translated from German.)
Lektsii topograficheskoi anatomii i operativnoi khirurgii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1908.
Kratkii kurs operativnoi khirurgii s topograficheskoi anatomiei. [Leningrad] 1951.
Ognev, B. V., and V. Kh. Frauchi. Topograficheskaia i klinicheskaia anatomiia. Moscow, 1960.
Uderman, Sh. I. Izbrannye ocherki istorii otechestvennoi khirurgii XIX stoletiia. Leningrad, 1970.
Ostroverkhov, G. E., D. N. Lubotskii, and Iu. M. Bomash. Operativnaia khirurgiia i topograficheskaia anatomiia, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1972.
A. V. KRAEV