Andizhan(redirected from Andijon)
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a city, the center of Andizhan Oblast, Uzbek SSR. Located in the southeastern part of the Fergana Valley, on ancient deposits of the Andizhan River, it is a junction for railroads and highways to Tashkent, Namangan, Osh, Jalalabad, and Kokankishlak. The population in 1970 was 188,000 (85,000 in 1939; 131,000 in 1959). There are machine-building (production of machines and equipment for irrigation, cotton enterprises, and so on), electrotechni-cal, cotton-ginning, vegetable oil-milling, and hydrolyzing industries. There are plants producing shoes, sewn and knit goods, and canned goods. Andizhan has institutes of pedagogy, pedagogy of languages, medicine, and cotton-growing (the kishlak—village—of Kuigan-Iar); there are seven specialized secondary schools. The Akhunbabaev Uzbek Theater of Musical Drama and Comedy and a puppet theater are located in Andizhan. There is a museum of history and regional lore. There are deposits of oil and gas in the area.
The city has been known since the ninth century. Andizhan was located on the caravan route to China, and from the 15th century it was the trade and handicraft center of Fergana. It was taken by Russian troops on Jan. 9, 1876, during the conquest of the Kokand khanate. The Andizhan Uprising of 1898 occurred in the city in May of that year. The city was heavily destroyed by an earthquake in 1902, but it was quickly rebuilt. Since the early 20th century it has been one of the major economic, commercial, and industrial centers of Turkestan.
REFERENCESGoroda Ferganskoi doliny, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1963.
Goroda Uzbekistana. Tashkent, 1965.
an urban-type settlement in Khodzhabad Raion, Andizhan Oblast, Uzbek SSR. It is situated in the southeastern part of the Fergana Valley, 16 km east of the Assake railroad station. Population in 1968, 5,000. There is oil drilling. Andizhan is the site of a branch of the Kokand Petroleum Technicum.