Andizhan Uprising of 1898

Andizhan Uprising of 1898

 

a result of the colonialist policies of the tsarist regime in Middle Asia, which provoked a wave of spontaneous popular outbursts in Fergana Oblast from the 1880’s to the 1890’s.

The feudal nobility and Muslim clergy of the former Kokand khanate exploited the discontent of the masses. The uprising was led by Madali-ishan, who established his base in the kishlak (village) of Ming-Tiube, near Andizhan. Kindling the religious fanaticism of the masses, he attracted a section of the working population to his side. He established ties with the Turkish sultan. The leaders of the uprising intended to incite the populace in Andizhan, Osh, and Margilan in the name of a gazavat (holy war against the “infidels”) to seize Namangan, reestablish the Kokand khanate, spread the uprising throughout Middle Asia, and introduce an old, feudal system. The participants in the uprising gathered on May 17 in and around Ming-Tiube and moved on Andizhan.

The bulk of the insurgents were Dehwar farmers, cattle raisers, and mardiker day laborers; they were armed primarily with sidearms and numbered about 2,000. At dawn on May 18 they suddenly attacked the barracks of two companies of the 20th Turkestan Regular Line Battalion, which were quartered on the outskirts of Andizhan. The soldiers, suffering minor losses, dispersed the disorganized crowd with gunfire. The movement was quickly and cruelly suppressed. The tsarist authorities sentenced 383 people, 18 of whom were hanged, including Madali-ishan. The rest were sentenced to hard labor or banishment.

The Andizhan uprising was defeated not only because of inadequate preparations but also because the leadership of the movement, despite the anticolonialist mood of most of the participants, was in the hands of feudal lords and clergy, who were attempting to regain their privileges with the aid of the popular movement. Nonetheless, the Andizhan uprising objectively furthered the growth of the national liberation struggle of the peoples of Turkestan.

REFERENCE

Istoriia Uzbekskoi SSR, vol. 2. Tashkent, 1968.

KH. T. TURSUNOV