Andrássy, Julius, Count

Andrássy, Julius, Count

(ŏn`dräsh-shē), 1823–90, Hungarian politician. One of the leading figures in the 1848–49 Hungarian revolution, he supported the liberal program of Louis KossuthKossuth, Louis
, Hung. Kossuth Lajos, 1802–94, Hungarian revolutionary hero. Born of a Protestant family and a lawyer by training, he entered politics as a member of the diet and soon won a large following.
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 and after the Hungarian defeat he went into exile, mostly in Paris and London, until 1858. With Francis DeakDeak, Francis,
Hung. Deák Ferenc , 1803–76, Hungarian politician. A landed proprietor and lawyer, he entered the Hungarian diet in 1833 and became minister of justice after the revolution of Mar., 1848.
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 he then rose to prominence in the negotiations leading to the Ausgleich [compromise] of 1867, which created the Austro-Hungarian MonarchyAustro-Hungarian Monarchy
or Dual Monarchy,
the Hapsburg empire from 1867 until its fall in 1918. The Nature of Austria-Hungary

The reorganization of Austria and Hungary was made possible by the Ausgleich
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. Andrássy was (1867–71) the first constitutional premier of Hungary. He opposed Austrian interference, attained the creation of a separate Hungarian defense force, put down the opposition led by Kossuth's partisans, and established Magyar supremacy at the expense of Slavic and other minorities of the kingdom. In 1870 his influence was largely responsible for keeping Austria-Hungary neutral in the Franco-Prussian WarFranco-Prussian War
or Franco-German War,
1870–71, conflict between France and Prussia that signaled the rise of German military power and imperialism. It was provoked by Otto von Bismarck (the Prussian chancellor) as part of his plan to create a unified German
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. As foreign minister of the Dual Monarchy (1871–79) he reversed the anti-Prussian policy of his predecessor, Beust, held Austria-Hungary to the Three Emperors' LeagueThree Emperors' League,
informal alliance among Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia, announced officially in 1872 on the occasion of the meeting of emperors Francis Joseph, William I, and Alexander II.
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, and signed (1879) the Dual Alliance with Germany (see Triple Alliance and Triple EntenteTriple Alliance and Triple Entente
, two international combinations of states that dominated the diplomatic history of Western Europe from 1882 until they came into armed conflict in World War I.
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). His chief program was to limit Russian expansion in the Balkans and to maintain the status quo among the Slavic peoples. At the Congress of Berlin (see Berlin, Congress ofBerlin, Congress of,
1878, called by the signers of the Treaty of Paris of 1856 (see Paris, Congress of) to reconsider the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, which Russia had forced on the Ottoman Empire earlier in 1878.
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) in 1878, he obtained for the Dual Monarchy the right to occupy Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina
, Serbo-Croatian Bosna i Hercegovina, country (2013 pop. 3,791,622), 19,741 sq mi (51,129 sq km), on the Balkan peninsula, S Europe. It is bounded by Croatia on the west and north, Serbia on the northeast, and Montenegro on the southeast.
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. This step provoked much opposition in Hungary because it further increased the Slavic element in the empire, and Andrássy resigned.

Andrássy, Julius, Count,

1860–1929, Hungarian politician; son of the elder Count Andrássy. He occupied several cabinet posts before becoming (1900) minister of the interior of Hungary in the coalition cabinet under WekerleWekerle, Alexander
, 1848–1921, Hungarian premier. He became minister of finance in 1889 and retained that post during his first two terms as premier (1892–95, 1906–10).
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. He opposed the Austrian diplomacy of 1914, and as foreign minister (late in 1918) he severed all connections with Germany in the hope of obtaining a separate peace for Austria-Hungary. In 1921 he was involved in the second attempt of King Charles IV (Emperor Charles ICharles I,
1887–1922, last emperor of Austria and, as Charles IV, king of Hungary (1916–18); son of Archduke Otto and grandnephew and successor of Emperor Francis Joseph. He married Zita of Bourbon-Parma.
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) to regain the Hungarian throne, and he later led the royalist opposition to Admiral Horthy and Count Stephen BethlenBethlen, Count Stephen,
1874–1947?, Hungarian premier (1921–31). A Transylvanian, he entered the Hungarian parliament in 1901, and in 1919 he was a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference.
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. He wrote a number of political and historical studies, notably, in German.