Andronovo Culture


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Andronovo Culture

 

an archaeological culture from the Bronze Age. It was identified in the 1920’s by S. A. Teploukhov and is named after the village of Andronovo, near Achinsk. The Andronovo culture is regarded as a conventional term for a community of partially related cultures that were spread over the territory of Kazakhstan, western Siberia, and the southern Urals. In the west it came into contact with a culture characterized by the use of notched logs in construction. There is no unanimity of opinion among researchers regarding the boundaries of the territory and the basic features common to this community of local cultures. Neither is there agreement on the question of the exact time when this culture existed. It is dated approximately in the middle and the second half of the second millennium B.C. Artifacts from the cultures of the Andronovo community are represented in settlements of various kinds (with remnants of semisubterranean and ground-level dwellings) and by burial grounds (with graves, more rarely with cremation sites). The burial sites are often marked by round low embankments and sometimes by stone barriers. At the burial sites the following kinds of items have been found: flint arrowheads, bronze tools and weapons, beads of copper and paste, and belled gold and copper earrings. The ceramics are flat-bottomed, as a rule, and consist of ornamented pots, jars, and rectangular “dishes.”

REFERENCES

Teploukhov, S. A. “Opyt klassifikatsii drevnikh metallicheskikh kul’tur Minusinskogo kraia.” In the collection Materialy po etnografii, vol. 4, issue 2. Department of Ethnography of the Russian State Museum. Leningrad, 1929.
Kiselev, S. V. Drevniaia istoriia Iuzhnoi Sibiri. Moscow-Leningrad, 1949.
Chernikov, S. S. Vostochnyi Kazakhstan ν epokhu bronzy. Moscow, 1960.
Sal’nikov, K. V. Ocherki drevnei istorii Iuzhnogo Urala. Moscow, 1967.
Istoriia Sibiri s drevneishikh vremen do nashikh dnei, vol. 1. Leningrad, 1968.
References in periodicals archive ?
A skeleton from the Unetice culture in Poland dates to more than 4,000 years ago, and one from Siberia's Andronovo culture is about 3,700 years old.
Fussman provides a balanced assessment of the prospects of finding any clear-cut markers that would point specifically to Indo-Iranians, Iranians, or Indo-Aryans within the area of the Andronovo culture east of the Caspian Sea down through Bactria, Margiana, and the Indus Valley, the likely route taken by the Indians and Iranians into their current homes.
This far-flung culture, which spanned the area directly south of the Andronovo Culture, extending from the Kopet Dagh near the southeastern tip of the Caspian Sea to the Pamir Mountains and running through Margiana and Bactria south of the Oxus (currently the Amou Darya), flourished between 2200 and 1700 b.
This was a lengthy process, but from the late Early Bronze Age/Middle Bronze Age, a very homogenous bronze culture, the Andronovo culture, develops over vast regions.
The first part of the book is entirely devoted to the presentation and analysis of the Andronovo culture, introducing the reader to the complicated vocabulary of interrelated cultures and cultural types covered by the Andronovo umbrella.
Keywords: Bronze Age, Siberia, Minusinsk Basin, Andronovo culture, Karasuk culture, burial mounds, horses, pastoralism
The Andronovo culture, a Bronze Age complex flourishing in the 2nd millennium BC, comprised a number of regional variants and covered an extensive area stretching from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey river, and from the northern border of the forest-steppe south to the Pamirs of Tadzhikistan (Mallory 1989: 227; 1995: 377-8).
On many of the Bronze Age sites in Margiana and Bactria archaeologists have recovered finds of pottery that identify the contemporary nomads of the Andronovo Culture.
The next major phase of the Bronze Age in the Kazakh steppes falls under the general umbrella of the Andronovo cultures, including the Alakul and Fyodorovo subcultures (Yevdokimov & Varfolomeev 2002; Koryakova & Epimakhov 2007).
The period of development for the Srubnaya and Andronovo cultures, representing the Late Bronze Age, is well represented by the investigation of numerous archaeological sites (Figure 2: III).
By the second millennium BC, some of the features of the eastern steppes' Andronovo cultures are also shared with the khirigsuur phenomenon, including stone barrows, stone slab cist burials, four-sided and circular enclosures made of surface stones or vertical slabs and the internment of selected parts of livestock--for example the familiar head and hoof deposits--that accompanied human inhumations or were buried in separate pits (Kuzmina 2001).
In the Fergana valley, the Kairak-Kum culture was associated with that of the Andronovo cultures of Kazakhstan and to a lesser degree, with the Srubnaya and Tazafagyab cultures (Litvinskii et al.