ACE inhibitor

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ACE inhibitor

(ā'sē'ē`, ās) or

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

(ăn'jēōtĕn`sĭn), drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), to treat congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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). ACE inhibitors block production of an enzyme that helps convert the protein angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, a protein that makes blood vessels constrict and promotes retention of fluid, raising blood pressure. Thus ACE inhibitors act to widen the blood vessels and make it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), and enalapril (Vasotec) are commonly used ACE inhibitors. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), reduce hypertension by displacing angiotensin 2 from receptors on the surface of cells. ARBs are used as alternatives to the less expensive ACE inhibitors because they have fewer side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or [beta]-blockers in heart failure: does it matter who goes first?
Heart failure treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in hospitalized Medicare patients in 10 states.
The two drugs groups -- calcium antagonists and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors -- join diuretics and beta blockers.
Presumably because angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors affect the metabolism of eicosanoids and polypeptides, including endogenous bradykinin, patients receiving ACE inhibitors (including PRINIVIL) may be subject to a variety of adverse reactions, some of them serious.
These drugs are often overprescribed, as a result of aggressive marketing and in the absence of evidence that they are better than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
There is a body of evidence suggesting that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may play a role in the pathophysiology of AF and that suppression of this system with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may prevent AF (3-10).
Additionally, agents from drug classes that are typically used in first-, second-, and third-line therapy -- such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs), calcium-channel blockers (CCBs), and diuretics -- will all be subject to generic competition.
3) In addition, NSAIDs aggravate heart failure by inducing water retention and by blunting the effects of diuretics, [beta]-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
The most problematic class of antihypertensive agents in pregnancy are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Patients who were assessed in 2003 or later were significantly more likely to be taking statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and clopidogrel at the time of their baseline transcranial Doppler embolus detection than were those who were assessed before.
Systematic Review: Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for treating essential hypertension.
of patients 371 Age range (mean) 44-92 yr (mean age, 67 yr) Sex ratio 1:1 (178 males, 193 females) Time frame July 1996-December 1997 (18 mo) Discharge diagnosis Congestive heart failure Comorbid diagnoses Chronic lung disease, pneumonia, coronary artery disease, anemia, renal insufficiency, diabetes, hypertension Exclusion criteria Peripartum cardiomyopathy, hemodialysis, intolerance to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, readmission for congestive heart failure

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