Anglo-Burmese Wars

(redirected from Anglo-Burmese War)

Anglo-Burmese Wars

 

1824–26, 1852, and 1885, predatory wars instigated by England and aimed at the colonial enslavement of Burma.

The British East India Company started the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) on Mar. 5, 1824. English forces met stubborn resistance. The Burmese army, led by Maha Bandula, inflicted serious damage to the English forces. After Maha Bandula’s death in April 1825 the English army was able, at the expense of huge losses, to advance almost to the Burmese capital of Ava. England bound Burma to a treaty, signed in Yandabo on Feb. 24, 1826. Burma lost Arakan, Tenasserim, and the Indian principalities of Assam and Manipur, which it had conquered at the beginning of the 19th century. Burma was obligated to pay an indemnity of <£ 1 million, to accept an English resident, and to conclude a trade agreement with England. The resistance of the Burmese people forced the East India Company to end military actions without completing the conquest of all of Burma.

The East India Company initiated the second Anglo-Burmese War (1852) on Apr. 5, 1852, with the occupation of the area of Pegu. Burma suffered defeat in this war owing in part to the uprisings, provoked by England, of the Mons, Shans, and Karens. On Dec. 20, 1852, the East India Company proclaimed the annexation of Pegu.

The third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) completed the subjugation of Burma. Exploiting an incident between an English trading company and the Burmese government, England presented an ultimatum to the Burmese king Thibau in October 1885 demanding control over Burma’s foreign relations. At the same time, English troops were sent to Burma. Military actions began on Nov. 14, 1885. The regular Burmese army was unable to resist the English army, which had numerical superiority, and it capitulated. On Jan. 1, 1886, a manifesto announcing the annexation of Burma to the possessions of the English throne was published. Burma became a separate province of India. The partisan movement which unfolded in Burma was not broken by the English colonialists until 1890.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Voina v Birme.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 9.
Marx, K. “Polozhenie del na kontinente i v Anglii.” Ibid.
Banerjee, A. C. Annexation of Burma. Calcutta, 1944.

A. P. MURANOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
It is defined somewhat arbitrarily as those ethnic groups that were settled in Myanmar in 1823, a year before the first Anglo-Burmese war in which the British conquered Arakan (as Rakhine was officially known until 1989) and other regions of the country.
In the end, this formation of a refugee migrants' community and the dispute between the British and Burmese governments about how to handle it contributed to the outbreak of the Anglo-Burmese war (1824-26).
The borders of the state were defined by convention on the borders of the pre-colonial Burmese empire of King Bodawpaya, prior to the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824-1826).
Previously, the Kingdom of Ahom under Burmese rule, Assam became part of British India after the Anglo-Burmese War (1824-26).
Even after the First Anglo-Burmese War, and the annexation of parts of coastal Burma in 1826, it is unlikely that many people in the UK had even heard of it.
Having just been annexed by the British in the Third Anglo-Burmese war, Leveson would have been in pole position to witness the changes to the newly British-controlled Burma, up until his retirement from the service 25 years later.
13) This state-dominated religious economy continued right up to the final destruction of Burmese statehood with the Third Anglo-Burmese War of 1885, after which the colonial state followed its avowed 'principles' of religious non-interference and left the Thathanabaing and the Sangha at large to fend for themselves.
They have been unable to prove their right to live there since they cannot fulfil the stipulations of a 1982 law that states they must prove they lived in Myanmar prior to 1823 -- before the Anglo-Burmese War -- to obtain nationality.
Burma became the British colony since 1826, where after the 3rd Anglo-Burmese War the bulk of the Myanmar army surrendered to the British but the ethnic nationalities stay on as usual under the administration of their respective chiefs, even though most of them, except the Karenni (now forcibly change to Kayah), acknowledge the suzerainty of the British colonial empire.
Thibaw's defeat in the Third Anglo-Burmese War marked the end of centuries of royal rule, and the country also known as Burma remained part of the British empire until 1948.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War (1890) ended after only a few weeks, although resistance continued among the northern tribes until the British resorted to the destruction of villages and crops to defeat the last holdouts.
However, warfare on the part of the Konbaung kingdom continued until the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824-26).