Anglo-Iraqi Treaties and Agreements

Anglo-Iraqi Treaties and Agreements

 

1922, 1926, 1930, 1948, and 1955. The 1922 treaty was concluded for a 20-year period on October 10, in Baghdad, but was ratified only in 1924. In effect, it made Iraq a British mandate. Iraq was deprived of its right to conduct an independent foreign policy, and control over the armed forces, finances, and the whole political and economic life of the country was transferred to a- British high commissioner. The strong opposition to the treaty in Iraq forced Great Britain (by the agreement of 1923) to shorten the period of the treaty to four years.

The treaty signed on Jan. 13, 1926, in Baghdad, extended the effective period of the 1922 treaty until 1950 if Iraq did not become a member of the League of Nations (which would automatically deliver Iraq from the British mandate) by that time.

The treaty signed on June 30, 1930, in London, was for a period of 25 years and replaced the 1922 and 1926 treaties. It came into force after Iraq was accepted into the League of Nations in 1932 and abolished the British mandate. Officially recognizing the independence of Iraq, the treaty essentially maintained the country’s dependent situation in foreign and military affairs. Britain was permitted to have two military bases in Iraq and to retain the right to utilize Iraqi territory in the event of war.

The agreement signed on Jan. 15, 1948, in Portsmouth, provided for the creation of a “commission of joint defense”; the territory of Iraq remained a base for British armed forces. As a result of the popular uprising in January 1948, the Portsmouth Treaty was rejected by the parliament of Iraq.

The agreement signed on Apr. 4, 1955, in Baghdad, simultaneously with Britain’s entry into the Baghdad Pact, replaced the 1930 treaty. Britain retained control over the Iraqi army and its military air bases and strategic routes. British air forces were left in Iraq. After the Iraqi revolution of 1958, the government of the Iraqi republic declared that it was leaving the Baghdad Pact and simultaneously (Mar. 24, 1959) denounced the 1955 agreement.

PUBLICATIONS

Kliuchnikov, Iu. V., and A. V. Sabanin. Mezhdunarodnaia politika noveishego vremeni v dogovorakh, notakh i deklaratsiiakh, part 3, issue 2. Moscow, 1929.
Mezhdunarodnaia politika v 1930 g. . . . Moscow, 1932.
Khasani, A. Tarikh al’-lrak as-siiasi al’-khadis (Politcheskaia istoriia sovremennogo Iraka), vol. 2. Saida, 1958.

B. M. DANTSIG

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