Sikh Wars

(redirected from Anglo-Sikh wars)
Also found in: Wikipedia.

Sikh Wars

(1845–49), two conflicts preceding the British annexation of the Punjab. By a treaty with the British in 1809, the Sikh ruler of the Punjab, Ranjit SinghRanjit Singh
, 1780–1839, Indian maharaja, ruler of the Sikhs. Seizing Lahore (1799) and Amritsar (1809), he established himself as the leading Sikh chieftain. In 1809 he made a treaty with the British, by which he agreed not to expand his domain south of the Sutlej River.
..... Click the link for more information.
, had accepted the Sutlej River as the southern boundary of his domain. After his death (1839) the Punjab fell into a state of disorder in which a succession of rulers were rapidly overthrown by the army. In 1845 the regent, Jhindan, who was both fearful of British intentions and anxious to distract the Sikh army, sent troops across the Sutlej (Dec. 11). The British, under Sir Hugh (later Viscount) Gouge, Sir Harry Smith, and others, won several preliminary victories and then decisively defeated the Sikhs at Aliwal (Jan. 28, 1846) and Sobraon (Feb. 10). They occupied Lahore on Feb. 20. By the Treaty of Lahore (Mar., 1846), the Sikhs were forced to cede Kashmir and to pay an indemnity of 55 million rupees. The British established a protectorate, which was resented. In Apr., 1848, a riot occurred, in which two British officers were killed. There was a general uprising, followed by a second war. A costly (for the British) battle at Chilianwalla (Jan. 13, 1849) was indecisive, but the British completely routed the Sikhs at Gujrat (Feb. 21). The Sikhs surrendered on Mar. 12. Lord Dalhousie, the governor-general, annexed all the Sikh territory on Mar. 30.

Bibliography

See B. J. Hasrat, Anglo-Sikh Relations, 1799–1849 (1968).

Sikh Wars

 

(in Russian, Anglo-Sikh Wars), predatory wars of the English East India Company in 1845–46 and 1848–49 against the Sikh state in Punjab (India). After provoking a border conflict, the British forced the Sikhs to begin military activities in December 1845.

In the first Sikh War the Sikhs were sucessful in battles at Mudki (December 18) and Firozpur (December 21), but they suffered a defeat at the battle at Sobraon on Feb. 10, 1846. After the first Sikh War, the colonialists maintained something like an independent government. However, the Sikhs were forced to surrender the region of Jullundur to the East India Company and Kashmir to the company ally Gulab Singh, raja of Jammu; they also had to agree to accept an English resident at Lahore. The East India Company decreased the number of Punjab troops, placed the state’s taxation department under its control, and took other such steps. This produced an anti-English uprising in the Sikh army in April 1848. Under pretext of struggling against mutineers, the East India Company began the second Sikh War in November 1848. At the end of January 1849 it managed to seize Multan. On February 21 in the battle at Gujarat the Sikh forces were decisively smashed, after which the East India Company annexed Punjab.

REFERENCES

Semenova, N. I. Gosudarstvo sikkhov. Moscow, 1958.
Kochnev, V. I. Gosudarstvo sikkhov i Angliia. Moscow, 1968.
Panjab on the Eve of the First Sikh War. Hoshiarpur, 1956.
Gough, C., and A. Innes. The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars. . . . London, 1897.
Singh, Ganda. The British Occupation of the Panjab. Amritsar-Patiala, 1955.

N. I. SEMENOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
They consist of entries on the major faith traditions, including Zoroastrianism, Greek and Roman gods, Celtic and Norse gods, Baha'i, Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism; the religious dimensions of major wars and conflicts, such as the American Revolution, the Civil War, the Cold War, World War I, World War II, and the medieval European crusades against Middle Eastern Islam; religious aspects of smaller wars and conflicts, such as the Anglo-Sikh Wars, the Balkan Wars, the Bishops' Wars, and the German Peasants' War; and key battles, leaders, philosophers, and theologians, as well as weapons.
As a result of conflicts between the British East India Trading Company and the Sikh empire, Anglo-Sikh wars took place in 1840s and finally the empire was dissolved in 1849.
He claims that the erstwhile Sikh kingdom offered the gem to the British East India Company in 1849 as "voluntary compensation" for the expenses of the just-concluded Anglo-Sikh wars.
It was swindled by the British East India Company through a treaty with minor Duleep Singh after the Anglo-Sikh Wars in 1846.
3 (ANI): Rare books, manuscripts and handwritten documents of the 16th to the early part of the 19th century, covering events related to Sikh gurus and the Anglo-Sikh Wars, are soon to be digitised.
He has quite a distinguished military career, eventually becoming a general, and having belonged to the Bengal Artillery Unit and seeing combat during both Anglo-Sikh wars.
This happened shortly after the British had defeated the Sikhs in the bitter and gory Anglo-Sikh Wars of the 1840s.
Sources: Bruce, George, Six Battles for India: The Anglo-Sikh Wars, 1845-1846, 1848-1849.
The Indian government decided this week not to stake its claim on the diamond since it was given to the British as "voluntary compensation" during the Anglo-Sikh Wars.
His collection includes medals belonging to the era of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the 1857 Indian War of Independence (referred as Indian Mutiny), World War-I and World War-II, first and second Afghan Wars, both Anglo-Sikh Wars and Maratha Wars.
The central government has told the apex Supreme Court that the heirs of Sikh Emperor Maharaja Ranjit Singh gave the Kohinoor to the British as "voluntary compensation" to cover the expenses of the Anglo-Sikh Wars.