Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Treaty of 1942

Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Treaty of 1942

 

a treaty of alliance signed on January 29, in Tehran. The signing of the treaty was preceded by the introduction of Soviet and British troops within Iranian territory during August-September 1941 in order to prevent fascist Germany from utilizing the country’s territory and resources in the war against the USSR and Great Britain. The Soviet Union undertook this action on the basis of the conditions of the Soviet-Iranian Treaty of 1921. On Aug. 25, 1941, the Soviet and British governments delivered a note to Iran stating the circumstances that had impelled them to take the measures indicated. Muhammad Riza’s succession to the throne in September 1941 and the formation of a new Iranian government created the conditions for the conclusion of the Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Treaty, which secured Iran’s collaboration with the anti-Hitler coalition during World War II.

According to the treaty, the USSR and Britain were bound to respect the territorial integrity, sovereignty, and political independence of Iran (art. 1) and “... to defend Iran by all means at their disposal against aggression of every kind from Germany or any other power” (art. 3). In order to carry out this goal, the Allied governments were given the right to maintain land, sea, and air forces on Iranian territory in the numbers they considered necessary (art. 4). The contracting parties promised not to conclude treaties and agreements incompatible with the provisions of the Anglo-Soviet-Iranian Treaty. The USSR and Britain pledged “... not to take positions in their relations with other countries that would damage the territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence of Iran. . .” (art. 6). Iran, in turn, promised not to establish relations incompatible with the alliance and provisions of the treaty. In accordance with article 5, Britain and the USSR promised to withdraw their troops from Iranian territory “. . . no later than six months after the cessation of all military actions between the Allied states and Germany and its accomplices by means of an armistice or armistices, this period to be reckoned from the date of the earlier of these acts or immediately upon conclusion of peace between them.” (The troops were withdrawn between the end of 1945 and May 1946.) The Allied powers guaranteed Iran that they would not demand the participation of its armed forces in military actions; they also promised not to approve any measures at peace conferences that would harm Iran’s territorial integrity, sovereignty, or political independence.

PUBLICATION

Vneshniaia politika Sovetskogo Soiuza v period Otechestvennoi voiny, vol. 1. Moscow, 1944. pages 217–21.

V. A. EMETS