1799, 1809, and 1878. The 1799 treaty was signed on January 5, in Istanbul. It formalized Great Britain’s entry into the Russo-Turkish Alliance and Turkey’s entry into the second anti-French coalition. It provided for the execution of joint operations against France in Egypt and on the Mediterranean Sea during the Egyptian Expedition (1798–1801).
The 1809 treaty (known as the Dardanelles Peace Treaty), signed on January 5 on a British warship, concluded the 1807–09 Anglo-Turkish War. It obligated the sultan to keep the Black Sea straits closed to the military ships of any foreign power that especially injured the interests of Russia.
The 1878 treaty (known as the Cyprus Convention) was a secret agreement “on a defensive alliance.” It was signed on June 4, in Istanbul, before the opening of the 1878 Congress of Berlin. In the treaty, Britain pledged to aid the sultan “by force of arms” in the event that Russia, which retained Batum, Ardahan, and Kars (obtained during the war with Turkey of 1877–78), attempted to make new territorial acquisitions in Asia Minor. In exchange, Turkey agreed to Britain’s occupation of Cyprus. The treaty was anulled by Britain on Nov. 5, 1914, in connection with the annexation of Cyprus.
PUBLICATIONKliuchnikov, Iu. V., and A. Sabanin. Mezhdunarodnaia politika noveishego vremeni v dogovorakh, notakh i deklaratsiiakh, part 1. Moscow, 1925.
G. A. KLEINMAN