Annam

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Related to Annamite: Annamite Cordillera

Annam

(ənăm`, ă`năm), historic region (c.58,000 sq mi/150,200 sq km) and former state, in central Vietnam, SE Asia. The capital was HueHue
, city (1989 pop. 260,489), former capital of the historic region of Annam, Vietnam, in a rich farming area on the Hue River near the South China Sea. Probably founded in the 3d cent. A.D., Hue was occupied in turn by the Chams and the Annamese. After the 16th cent.
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. The region extended nearly 800 mi (1,290 km) along the South China Sea between TonkinTonkin
, historic region (c.40,000 sq mi/103,600 sq km), SE Asia, now forming the heartland of N Vietnam. The capital was Hanoi. Tonkin was bordered on the north by China, on the east by the Gulf of Tonkin, on the south by the historic region of Annam, and on the S and W by Laos.
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 on the north and Cochin ChinaCochin China
, Fr. Cochinchine, historic region (c.26,500 sq mi/68,600 sq km) of Vietnam, SE Asia. The capital and chief city was Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). Cochin China was bounded by Cambodia on the northwest and north, by the historic region of Annam on the
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 on the south. In addition to Hue, the principal cities in the region are Da NangDa Nang
, formerly Tourane
, city (1990 est. pop. 371,000), central Vietnam, a port on the South China Sea. One of the largest cities in Vietnam, it has an excellent deepwater harbor (dredged and improved by the United States) and is a busy commercial port.
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 (the chief seaport), An Nhon, Quang Tri, and VinhVinh
, city (1989 pop. 175,167), E central Vietnam, near the Song Ca River and the Gulf of Tonkin coast. It is the commercial center for the surrounding agricultural area and is linked to Hanoi by highway and railroad.
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. In 1954, when Vietnam was divided on a line approximating the 17th parallel, Annam went largely to South Vietnam. The ridge of the Annamese Cordillera separated N and central Annam from Laos on the west; the ridge then swung southeastward and ran along the coast of S Annam, which included the plateaus that stretched to the borders of Cambodia and Cochin China. The narrow coastal plains of N and central Annam were interrupted by spurs of mountains that almost reached the sea, as at Porte d'Annam, a pass important in Annamese history.

History

The origins of the Annamese state may be traced to the peoples of the Red River valley in N Vietnam. After more than 2,000 years of contact with the Chinese, they fell under Chinese rule as the result of a Han invasion in 111 B.C. The region, to which the Chinese gave the name Annam ("Pacified South"; a name resented by the people), comprised all of what later became N Annam and Tonkin. Southern Annam was occupied by the kingdom of the Chams, or ChampaChampa
, the kingdom of the Chams, which flourished in Vietnam from the 2d cent. A.D. until the 17th cent. At its greatest extent it occupied Annam as far north as central Vietnam. Its culture was strongly affected by Hindu influences.
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, from the late 2d cent. A.D. In 939 the Annamese drove out the Chinese and established their independence, which they maintained, except for one brief period of Chinese reoccupation (1407–28), until their conquest by the French in the 19th cent.

By 1558 the kingdom was in effect divided between two great families: the Trinh line, which ruled from Hanoi (then called Tonkin) as far south as Porte d'Annam (this area was called Tonkin by the Europeans who arrived in the 16th cent.), and the Nguyens, who ruled from Hue over the territory extending from Porte d'Annam south to the vicinity of Quy Nhon. The ruling dynasties of Hue and Tonkin were overthrown in 1778 and 1786 respectively, and the two domains were reunited (1802) as the empire of Vietnam by Nguyen-Anh, a Hue general, who had procured French military aid by ceding (1787) to the French the port of Da Nang and the Con Son islands. Nguyen-Anh established himself as emperor; his authority was formally recognized by the Chinese in 1803. In 1807 the Vietnamese extended a protectorate over Cambodia, which led in succeeding years to frequent wars against Siam.

After the death of Nguyen-Anh his successor, attempting to withdraw into isolation, mistreated French nationals and Vietnamese Christian converts. This provided an excuse for French military operations, which began in 1858 and resulted in the seizure of S Vietnam (Cochin China) and the establishment of protectorates (by 1884) over N Vietnam (Tonkin) and central Vietnam (Annam). The French, who abolished the name Vietnam, received recognition for their protectorates from the Chinese emperor. In 1887 Annam became part of the Union of Indochina. In World War II Indochina was occupied by the Japanese, who set up the autonomous state of Vietnam, comprising Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China; Bao Dai, the last emperor of Vietnam, was established as ruler. After the war Annamese and Tonkinese nationalists demanded independence for the new state of Vietnam, and the region was plunged into a long and bloody conflict (see VietnamVietnam
, officially Socialist Republic of Vietnam, republic (2005 est. pop. 83,536,000), 128,400 sq mi (332,642 sq km), Southeast Asia. Occupying the eastern coastline of the Southeast Asian peninsula, Vietnam is bounded by China on the north, by Laos and Cambodia on the west,
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).

References in periodicals archive ?
De l'ensemble des descriptions se degage une reaction generale de surprise devant cette musique etrange (7) et le fait que le Theatre annamite se presente comme un lieu ou les Annamites n'apparaissent plus sous le jour sobre et impassible qui fait leur reputation.
Ce decalage par rapport aux representations types ne debouche cependant pas sur un etiolement de l'exotisme mais plutot sur une surenchere dans la mesure ou les spectacles du Theatre annamite repoussent les frontieres de l'imaginaire colonial en offrant un nouveau portrait des << indigenes >> qui se distingue de ce qui est presente dans le reste de la section coloniale.
Le contact interculturel au Theatre annamite ne se limite cependant pas aux Indochinois et aux metropolitains.
Ces nombreuses descriptions et appreciations qui paraissent decrire le Theatre annamite comme un lieu insolite dans l'Exposition nous ramenent a ce qui a deja ete dit au sujet de la fete coloniale : une suspension momentanee, mais normative, des codes gouvernant l'ensemble de la section coloniale.
Moins culturel que le Theatre annamite et plus etrange encore que la Fantasia, le spectacle des Aissaouas, membres d'une confrerie religieuse maghrebine qui s'infligent diverses mutilations en public, suscite probablement les commentaires les plus emotifs sur l'Exposition coloniale.
Ainsi, la Fantasia arabe, le Theatre annamite ou les Aissaouas ne sont pas tant presentes a l'Exposition coloniale pour convertir l'opinion publique au bien-fonde de l'expansion coloniale et de la mission civilisatrice, mais plutot pour attirer une masse de citadins en quete d'exotisme.
La relation de sa visite au restaurant annamite pique deja notre curiosite par certains elements incongrus.
Une description detaillee des spectacles presentes au Theatre annamite peut etre trouvee dans Musiques pittoresques.
A l'issue de l'Exposition universelle de 1889, Jules Ferry deplore d'ailleurs le fait que les visiteurs se soient interesses davantage aux spectacles des danseuses algeriennes qu'aux manifestations culturelles du theatre annamite ou aux grandes reconstitutions de milieux de vie indigenes (Ageron 1984 : 563-564).
In the past decade, the Annamite area has yielded stunning finds--the deerlike giant muntjac, the bovine saola, the Vietnam warty pig--notes Joshua Ginsberg of the Asia Program of the Wildlife Conservation Society, based at the Bronx Zoo.
The scientists, who found the skull in 2009, were likely the first to dig for ancient bones in Laos since the early 1900s, when a team found skulls and skeletons of several modern humans in another cave in the Annamite Mountains.
Through the so-called August Revolution and Ho Chi Minh's declaration of independence in September, '(t)he Annamites had become Vietnamese', as Schroder commented.

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