proxy server

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proxy server

Computing a computer that acts as an intermediary between a client machine and a server, caching information to save access time

proxy server

[′präk·sē ‚sər·vər]
(computer science)
Software for caching and filtering Web content to reduce network traffic on intranets, and for increasing security by filtering content and restricting access.

Proxy Server

(software, security)
Microsoft's proxy server and proxy gateway, designed to provide extensible firewall and network security. Proxy Server is part of BackOffice.

proxy server

(programming, World-Wide Web)
A process providing a cache of items available on other servers which are presumably slower or more expensive to access.

This term is used particularly for a World-Wide Web server which accepts URLs with a special prefix. When it receives a request for such a URL, it strips off the prefix and looks for the resulting URL in its local cache. If found, it returns the document immediately, otherwise it fetches it from the remote server, saves a copy in the cache and returns it to the requester. The cache will usually have an expiry algorithm which flushes documents according to their age, size and access history.

Compare proxy gateway.

proxy server

Also called a "proxy," it is a computer system or router that breaks the connection between sender and receiver. Functioning as a relay between client and server, proxy servers help prevent an attacker from invading a private network and are one of several tools used to build a firewall.

The word proxy means "to act on behalf of another," and a proxy server acts on behalf of the user. All requests from clients to the Internet go to the proxy server first. The proxy evaluates the request, and if allowed, re-establishes it on the outbound side to the Internet. Likewise, responses from the Internet go to the proxy server to be evaluated. The proxy then relays the message to the client. Both client and server think they are communicating with one another, but, in fact, are dealing only with the proxy.

Address Translation and Caching
The proxy server is a dual-homed host with two network interfaces and two IP addresses. The IP address on the outbound side of the proxy is the one the Internet sees, and the address of the machine making the request is hidden to the outside world. Proxies are often used in conjunction with network address translation (NAT), which hides all the IP addresses of the client machines on the internal network. Proxy servers may also cache Web pages, so that the next request for that same page can be obtained much faster locally. See NAT and proxy cache.

Other Proxies
Anonymous proxy servers let users surf the Web and keep their IP address private (see anonymous proxy). Although not specifically called a proxy, Internet e-mail (SMTP) is a similar concept because it forwards mail. Messages are not sent directly from client to client without going through the mail server. Likewise, the Internet's Usenet news system (NNTP) forwards messages to neighboring servers. See firewall.

Application Level and Circuit Level
Proxy servers are available for common Internet services; for example, an HTTP proxy is used for Web access; an FTP proxy is used for file transfers. Such proxies are called "application-level" proxies or "application-level gateways," because they are dedicated to a particular application and protocol and are aware of the content of the packets being sent. A generic proxy, called a "circuit-level" proxy, supports multiple applications. For example, SOCKS is IP-based circuit-level proxy server software that supports TCP and UDP applications (see SOCKS).

Forward and Reverse Proxies
In this definition, the proxy servers are used to hide the details of the clients from the servers and are thus known as "forward proxies." However, they can also reside at the website to hide the details of the servers from the clients (see reverse proxy).

A Proxy Server in a LAN
In this LAN server illustration, the proxy server sits between two routers in what is known as a "demilitarized zone." See DMZ.
References in periodicals archive ?
50) Because the DMCA was not intended to cover and did not anticipate anonymity networks like Tor, it seems unlikely that a court would apply its provisions to Tor.
Significantly, President Obama has proposed measures that would inhibit Internet privacy, including anonymity networks like Tor.
76) While Saudi Arabia's ban on anonymity networks is partially intended to give teeth to its censorship efforts, the government has also made clear that it is interested in surveillance.
The United Arab Emirates' objective in banning anonymity networks is twofold.
If the new provisions have the effect of banning anonymity networks that completely hide the user's identity, then this could effectively outlaw Tor.
On the other hand, if the United States does not want to explicitly ban anonymity networks, it could instead provide a back-door entrance for government surveillance of nearly all other online communication services, including VoIP, BlackBerry, and peer-to-peer networks.
Anonymity networks are not targeted without reason.
It seems unlikely that the United States would ban anonymity networks outfight, and such a move would raise major right-to-privacy concerns.
Requiring a backdoor into anonymity networks like Tor would be a significant infringement on individual privacy, which is completely unwarranted.
Germany engages in only very minor regulation of the Internet and virtually no regulation of anonymity networks or proxy servers.