Anopheles


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Related to Anopheles: malaria, Anopheles stephensi

Anopheles:

see mosquitomosquito
, small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can develop properly.
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Anopheles

 

a genus of the family Culicidae; members are commonly called malaria mosquitoes because they are carriers of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria in man. Only the females suck blood, feeding mainly on domestic animals and man. A resting anopheline mosquito, in contrast to nonmalarial ones, sits with its abdomen tilted upward and its head and proboscis, thorax, and abdomen forming a straight line.

Malaria mosquitoes develop in water. The eggs, which have floats, are deposited on the water one at a time. The larva has no respiratory tube (siphon) and rests horizontally on the sur-face. At the last molting the larva is transformed into a pupa.

More than 300 species are known, distributed on all the continents, as far north as approximately 65°-66° N lat. There are nine species in the USSR, including the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) and A. superpictus, once the principal carriers of the causative agent of malaria. The common malaria mosquito has four dark spots on the inner parts of its wings. It is distributed widely, as far north as the boundaries of the genus distribution and as far east as Blagoveshchensk. It breeds mainly in shallow, standing waters that are rich in aquatic vegetation. It concentrates close to populated areas and attacks humans predominantly in houses or near dwellings.

Anopheles superpictus has four or five light spots on the anterior edge of the wing. In the USSR it is distributed in Middle Asia and the Transcaucasus. It breeds mainly in small bodies of water and along streams and mountain rivers.

In order to control the malarial mosquitoes, housing for domestic animals and human dwellings are treated with insecticides. Other effective methods include draining the mosquitoes’ breeding areas and improving irrigation systems. To destroy the larvae, kerosene and petroleum are poured into bodies of water, which are also treated with insecticides. Biological control methods are also used, particularly in the Transcaucasus and southern Middle Asia, where waters are stocked with fish (for example, the mosquito fish) that eat mosquito larvae and pupae. Repellents, substances that ward off malaria mosquitoes, are used to protect humans.

REFERENCES

Beklemishev, V. N. Ekologiia maliariinogo komara (Anopheles maculipennis Mgn.). Moscow, 1944.
Pavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka s ucheniem o perenoschikakh transmissivnykh boleznei, 5th ed., vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Gutsevich, A. V., A. S. Monchadskii, and A. A. Shtakel’berg. Komary (sem. Culicidae). Leningrad, 1970.

A. V. GUTSEVICH

Anopheles

[ə′näf·ə‚lēz]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae; members are vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
10 In Pakistan 24 species of the genus anopheles have been reported.
The disease is spreading in Delhi as patients are transmitting this parasitical infection to other anopheles once they are bitten by them.
Of these numerous species, six species fall into the genus Anopheles and have been reported from several regions within the country (Gonzalez, 2006).
With several human malaria cases reported annually from the ROK, (10,12,13) there is an urgent need to accurately identify the potential Anopheles mosquito vectors.
Anopheles gambiae has been considered the most anthropophilic species, followed by A.
A total of 321 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in this location; 95.
Female mosquitoes of more than 30 Anopheles species act as vector for malaria worldwide (WHO, 2012; Sinka et al.
There is no earlier record present regarding susceptibility status of Anopheles subpictus in Punjab Pakistan.
The importance of Anopheles dirus (Anopheles balabacensis) as a vector of malaria in northeast India.
Lastly, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles aquasalis, Anopheles argyritarsis, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles hectoris, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles punctipennis, were collected in association with An.
The ongoing climate change uplifting of Himalaya evolution of a monsoon system rising and falling of the sea level are perhaps those features of Pleistocene that might have led to the process of speciation in genus Anopheles of Pakistan.