corruption

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corruption

The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.

corruption

‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.

Corruption

 

a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.

M. A. KRUTOGOLOV

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