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any one of a group of synthetic or natural substances used in the treatment of malignant tumors. Antineoplastics include alkylating agents (embichine, novembichin, Chlorbutin [chlorambucil], dopan, sarcolysine, Cyclophosphane [cyclophosphamide], myelosan), antimetabolites (methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 5-fluorouracil), antibiotics (bruneomycin, rubomycin), and plant alkaloids (Colchamine [Colcemid], vinblastine, vincristine). These substances arrest the process of mitosis. In addition, enzymes and hormonal preparations are used, including corticosteroids and female and male sex hormones.

Antineoplastics are used only with certain types of tumors. The histological structure that a tumor of a particular organ has is especially significant. There is no universal antineoplastic preparation. As a rule, the effect of the preparation is inversely proportional to the mass of the tumor, that is, the preparation is more easily effective with a small tumor than with a large one. Treatment with antineoplastics is based on the differences between the biochemical properties of normal and tumoral tissues and is directed predominantly toward suppressing the accelerated reproduction of tumoral cells. The differences between normal and tumoral tissues are principally quantitative—rapid cell reproduction is characteristic not only of tumoral elements but also of normal cells of the hematopoietic organs, intestinal epithelium, and skin.

Antineoplastics also affect normal tissues when they act on a tumor. Many antineoplastics are toxic and produce side effects that may or may not be associated with the mechanism of suppressing cell reproduction. These side effects include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea, stomatitis, and a decrease in the number of leukocytes, thrombocytes, and erythrocytes in the blood. In some cases, this results in the limitation of the dosage or even suspension of treatment.

Antineoplastics are either injected intravenously, administered orally, or injected into the pleural or abdominal cavities. The preparation has a local effect when the injection is intracavitary, although it is to one degree or another absorbed into the blood. In treating skin tumors, antineoplastics can be applied locally. It is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatment and decrease the toxic effects of the preparation by special injection methods, when the antineoplastic is injected into the vessels that supply the tumor with blood. Antineoplastics are usually administered in stages, with varying time periods separating the stages. Sometimes there is a delayed reaction and the effect of the preparation only occurs after the completion of one stage of treatment.

Polychemotherapy is promising in the treatment of tumors. It consists in the simultaneous or successive use of several preparations that differ in the mechanism of their effect and in their toxic side effects. There has been progress in the treatment of children stricken with acute lymphoid leukemia, largely because of the introduction of therapy combined with antineoplastic preparations. Antineoplastics are also used together with other methods of tumor treatment, for instance, during preoperative and postoperative periods, or with radiotherapy.


Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukhoki. Moscow, 1962.
Blokhin, N. N., and N. I. Perevodchikova. “Nekotorye etapy klinicheskoi khimioterapii opukholevykh zabolevanii.” Vestnik AMN SSSR, 1967, no. 5.


References in periodicals archive ?
Though the Phase I studies were carried out in cancer patients with advanced, refractory disease and were not designed to investigate the efficacy of AG337, the Newcastle investigators noted that anti-tumor effects such as static disease or improvement in biochemical tumor markers were observed in five of the nine patients thus far enrolled in the ongoing Phase Ib study.
Anderson will collaborate to determine the MLPC's utility as an anti-tumor protein delivery vehicle.
In studies first reported in 1992 at a European symposium on cancer research, AG-331 demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity at sub- toxic doses in both in vitro and in vivo test systems.
These liposomes in combination with heat were used to evaluate relationships between temperature profile, drug distribution and anti-tumor activity in a rat tumor model.
They are similar to the well known and widely used anti-tumor agent 5-FU, however, they appear to have advantages in potency and selectivity over 5-FU.
Both sapacitabine and CNDAC, its major metabolite or a substance into which the drugs converts after ingestion by patients, have demonstrated potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical studies.
As reported by Agouron scientists at the national meeting of the American Association of Cancer Research in May 1992, AG-337 has demonstrated significant anti-tumor activity in test animals at sub-toxic doses.
The data reflect promising anti-tumor activity, especially given the relatively early stage of clinical testing of this compound and the heterogeneous nature of cancer patients in this study," said Dr.
AG-337 is the second new anti-tumor drug to be described by Agouron scientists to the cancer research community in the past two months.
Promising anti-tumor activity has been observed over the range of doses administered.
At an international symposium on new drugs for cancer therapy to be held in the Netherlands next week, Agouron scientists will report significant anti-tumor activity in test animals demonstrated by the drug designated AG-331.
The data analysis plan for the study includes an interim analysis of Best Overall Response Rate (complete and partial) to be performed when half the patients (194 patients) have completed assessment of their best anti-tumor response.