Antioch


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Antioch

(ăn`tēŏk') or

Antakya

(äntäk`yä), city (1990 pop. 124,443), capital of HatayHatay
, formerly sanjak of Alexandretta,
province (1990 pop. 1,002,252), 2,141 sq mi (5,545 sq km), S Turkey, including the cities of Antioch (now Antakya) and Alexandretta (now Iskenderun).
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 prov., S Turkey, on the Orontes (Asi) River, near the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Silpius. Antioch is the trade center for a region where grains, cotton, grapes, olives, and vegetables are grown. The city's manufactures include processed foods, textiles, and leather goods. There is an archaeological museum.

Modern Antioch occupies only a fraction of the area of the ancient city, most of which is buried under alluvial deposits. Important archaeological finds in the area include the Great Chalice of Antioch (see chalicechalice
[Lat.,=cup], ancient name for a drinking cup, retained for the eucharistic or communion cup. Its use commemorates the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. Celebrated examples are the Great Chalice of Antioch (Syriac), of embossed silver, excavated there in 1910 and
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), said by some to be the Holy Grail, and, at Daphne, an ancient suburban resort, splendid Roman mosaics (1st–6th cent. A.D.), mostly copies of lost paintings and held to represent the height of mosaic art.

History

The city was founded c.300 B.C. by Seleucus I, king of Syria, and named for his father Antiochus, a Macedonian general. Situated at the crossing of north-south and east-west trade routes, the city soon became a rich commercial center. Antioch was occupied by Pompey in 64 B.C. and quickly became an important Roman military, commercial, and cultural center. The Romans built great temples, a forum, a theater, baths, aqueducts, and other public buildings. The two main streets, at right angles to each other, were lined with marble colonnades and adorned with temples, palaces, and statues.

Antioch was an early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there. It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called Christians after they severed themselves from the synagogue about 20 years after Jesus' death. Antioch is one of the three original patriarchates (see patriarchpatriarch,
in Christian churches, title of certain exalted bishops, implying authority over a number of other bishops. There were originally three patriarchates: the West, held by the bishop of Rome (the pope; see papacy; Benedict XVI dropped the title in 2006), Alexandria, and
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). Aurelian, who recovered the city from Shapur I of Persia, erected (3d cent.) more magnificent buildings and churches. The city played a significant role in the theological controversies of the early Christian church (see ChristianityChristianity,
religion founded in Palestine by the followers of Jesus. One of the world's major religions, it predominates in Europe and the Americas, where it has been a powerful historical force and cultural influence, but it also claims adherents in virtually every country of
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). St. John Chrysostom estimated its population (4th cent.) at 200,000, excluding children and slaves.

In 526 the city suffered a severe earthquake. It was again captured by Persia in 540 and taken by the Arabs in 637. Nicephorus II reconquered it (969) for the Byzantine Empire, but in 1085 it fell, through treason, to the Seljuk Turks. The army of the First Crusade (see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade
Origins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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) captured Antioch in 1098 after a half-year siege. Bohemond I was made prince of Antioch. His principality, which extended from Iskenderun (Alexandretta) southward beyond Latakia, was one of the most powerful of the Crusaders' states. In 1268 the Mamluks captured and sacked the city; it was further damaged by Timur in 1401.

In 1516 Antioch, by then much reduced in importance, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. The city was held (1832–40) by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, and in 1872 it was badly damaged by an earthquake. After World War I, Antioch was held as part of French Syria under a League of Nations mandate. In 1939 it was restored to Turkey.


Antioch,

city (1990 pop. 62,195), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on the San Joaquin River near the mouth of the Sacramento; inc. 1872. It is a processing and shipping center for the agricultural products of the delta area between the rivers. There is also varied manufacturing.

Antioch

a city in S Turkey, on the Orantes River: ancient commercial centre and capital of Syria (300--64 bc); early centre of Christianity. Pop.: 155 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
BEIRUT: Greek Orthodox Patriarch Ignatius IV Hazim stressed Thursday the significance of unity of the Orthodox Antioch Church in Lebanon, Syria, the Levant and the diaspora in order to confront challenges facing the community.
St Margaret of Antioch currently only has 105 pupils and as each school is funded on the basis of how many pupils it has, there simply is not enough money to operate it in the long term.
Antioch College is a private college of the liberal arts and sciences located in the Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio.
Beswick's best known work is, perhaps, the support she provided for the restoration of the El Campanil Theatre in Antioch, a community landmark built in 1928 and rescued in 2003.
The remarks came during a press conference held by Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All the East John X Yazigi on the occasion of the launch of the Holy Synod of Antioch's sessions.
At that time Antioch Psychology students will work with children and families on site at First Place, impacting the community while receiving course and practicum hours toward their degree.
Ministers of States Nazira Sarkis, Joseph Sweid and Jamal Shahin, Syria's Grand Mufti Ahmad Badr Eddin Hassoun and Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch and All East John X Yazigi also attended the ceremony that was held at Saint Peter's and Paul Cathedral in the Syriac Mar Ephrem Monastery in Saydnaya, Damascus Countryside.
If you'd like more information about Delbert Richardson or Antioch University Seattle, please call Sarah Guthrie, Marketing and Communications Director at 206-286-4132 or email sguthrie@antioch.
For more information about Antioch College, please visit: www.
He was the Archbishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch for the Eastern United States of America, and before that he was the secretary of late Patriarch Iwas.
Let there be absolutely no question in anybody's mind - ARS is still willing to provide service to the residents of the Village of Antioch as it has for the more than 70 years and it will continue to provide service in the Antioch Township under our current contract with the First Fire Protection District," ARS Chief Brian DeKind said.
SANA's correspondent in Antioch said that locals in Sweidiye area protested Erdogan's hostile policy against Syria and support the Syrian people and leadership in their confrontation against terrorism backed by Turkey, the Arab Gulf and America.