Antioch

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Antioch

(ăn`tēŏk') or

Antakya

(äntäk`yä), city (1990 pop. 124,443), capital of HatayHatay
, formerly sanjak of Alexandretta,
province (1990 pop. 1,002,252), 2,141 sq mi (5,545 sq km), S Turkey, including the cities of Antioch (now Antakya) and Alexandretta (now Iskenderun).
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 prov., S Turkey, on the Orontes (Asi) River, near the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Silpius. Antioch is the trade center for a region where grains, cotton, grapes, olives, and vegetables are grown. The city's manufactures include processed foods, textiles, and leather goods. There is an archaeological museum.

Modern Antioch occupies only a fraction of the area of the ancient city, most of which is buried under alluvial deposits. Important archaeological finds in the area include the Great Chalice of Antioch (see chalicechalice
[Lat.,=cup], ancient name for a drinking cup, retained for the eucharistic or communion cup. Its use commemorates the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. Celebrated examples are the Great Chalice of Antioch (Syriac), of embossed silver, excavated there in 1910 and
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), said by some to be the Holy Grail, and, at Daphne, an ancient suburban resort, splendid Roman mosaics (1st–6th cent. A.D.), mostly copies of lost paintings and held to represent the height of mosaic art.

History

The city was founded c.300 B.C. by Seleucus I, king of Syria, and named for his father Antiochus, a Macedonian general. Situated at the crossing of north-south and east-west trade routes, the city soon became a rich commercial center. Antioch was occupied by Pompey in 64 B.C. and quickly became an important Roman military, commercial, and cultural center. The Romans built great temples, a forum, a theater, baths, aqueducts, and other public buildings. The two main streets, at right angles to each other, were lined with marble colonnades and adorned with temples, palaces, and statues.

Antioch was an early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there. It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called Christians after they severed themselves from the synagogue about 20 years after Jesus' death. Antioch is one of the three original patriarchates (see patriarchpatriarch,
in Christian churches, title of certain exalted bishops, implying authority over a number of other bishops. There were originally three patriarchates: the West, held by the bishop of Rome (the pope; see papacy; Benedict XVI dropped the title in 2006), Alexandria, and
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). Aurelian, who recovered the city from Shapur I of Persia, erected (3d cent.) more magnificent buildings and churches. The city played a significant role in the theological controversies of the early Christian church (see ChristianityChristianity,
religion founded in Palestine by the followers of Jesus. One of the world's major religions, it predominates in Europe and the Americas, where it has been a powerful historical force and cultural influence, but it also claims adherents in virtually every country of
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). St. John Chrysostom estimated its population (4th cent.) at 200,000, excluding children and slaves.

In 526 the city suffered a severe earthquake. It was again captured by Persia in 540 and taken by the Arabs in 637. Nicephorus II reconquered it (969) for the Byzantine Empire, but in 1085 it fell, through treason, to the Seljuk Turks. The army of the First Crusade (see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade
Origins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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) captured Antioch in 1098 after a half-year siege. Bohemond I was made prince of Antioch. His principality, which extended from Iskenderun (Alexandretta) southward beyond Latakia, was one of the most powerful of the Crusaders' states. In 1268 the Mamluks captured and sacked the city; it was further damaged by Timur in 1401.

In 1516 Antioch, by then much reduced in importance, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. The city was held (1832–40) by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, and in 1872 it was badly damaged by an earthquake. After World War I, Antioch was held as part of French Syria under a League of Nations mandate. In 1939 it was restored to Turkey.


Antioch,

city (1990 pop. 62,195), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on the San Joaquin River near the mouth of the Sacramento; inc. 1872. It is a processing and shipping center for the agricultural products of the delta area between the rivers. There is also varied manufacturing.

Antioch

a city in S Turkey, on the Orantes River: ancient commercial centre and capital of Syria (300--64 bc); early centre of Christianity. Pop.: 155 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Naturally, there were deviations from the Orthodox teaching both on the Alexandrian and Antiochene side.
70) Sebastian Brock, The Epiklesis in the Antiochene Baptismal Ordines," Orientalia Christiana Analecta, vol.
In the fifth century, the Antiochene tradition of Model A develops in a different direction.
Rather, the Fathers seem to be asserting that the Antiochene functional emphasis, which was basically Theodore's way of expressing the unity, ought to be complemented with an explicit reference to the substantial hypostasis underlying it.
Bouman's account of a prophetic ministry in the Christian Scriptures, shared equally by men and women, with presidential roles appropriate to the new eschatological age, poses an intriguing challenge to Roman Catholic and Orthodox opponents of women's ordination; while Joanne McWilliam's fascinating portrait of an Augustine sympathetic to Antiochene Christology, suggests that this most universally revered of church Fathers would feel at home with contemporary anthropological Christologies as well as the latest postmodern claims for the perspectival nature of truth.
Hence John Chrysostom in 387 could justify coercive violence as he told his Antiochene congregation how to deal with blasphemers: "sanctify your hand by the blow
Significantly for an Antiochene, he accords prominence to the Church at Rome.
So as Jerusalem believers listened to the reports of the missionaries of the Antiochene church, they would receive a yet higher sense of confirmation that the promised messianic age had arrived.
Price said he is looking for 20 acres of land somewhere between Lancaster and Palmdale to house the Antiochene Malabar Rite headquarters.
The last of the first series of lectures then focuses on one particular text of the Greek Bible, namely, the so-called Lucianic or Antiochene text, a text reconstructed for Samuel-Kings by Fernandez and others at an earlier stage of investigation.
Four chapters deal in well-organized fashion with, respectively, the Chalcedonian Orthodox of the Antiochene Patriarchate from the middle ages to 1724; the circumstances of the reunion of a portion of the patriarchal church with Rome in that year; its fortunes in the period up to the beginning of the Second Vatican Council; and the ecumenical role it has attempted to play on the stage of the world church since 1962.
She continues the work of complicating the standard picture of Alexandrian allegorists and Antiochene literalists by showing that exegetes of both schools used the agonistic paradigm.