Antiochus III


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Related to Antiochus III: Antiochus IV, Cleopatra

Antiochus III

(Antiochus the Great), d. 187 B.C., king of Syria (223–187 B.C.), son of Seleucus IISeleucus II
(Seleucus Callinicus), d. 226 B.C., king of ancient Syria (247–226 B.C.), son of Antiochus II. On his father's death there was a struggle for the throne between Seleucus and his stepmother, Berenice (on behalf of her infant son).
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 and younger brother of Seleucus III, whom he succeeded. At his accession the Seleucid empire was in decline. Although Antiochus did not succeed in totally restoring the greatness of the Seleucid dynasty, he did much to revive its glory. He led an expedition (212–205 B.C.) to the eastern provinces and went as far as India. Although he was defeated earlier by the Egyptians at Raphia (modern Rafa), he and Philip VPhilip V,
238–179 B.C., king of Macedon (221–179), son of Demetrius II, successor of Antigonus III. He won fame in a war in Greece (220–217), in which he sided with the Achaean League against the Spartans and the Aetolian League.
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 of Macedon undertook (202 B.C.) to wrest Egyptian territories from the boy king, Ptolemy VPtolemy V
(Ptolemy Epiphanes) , d. 180 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (205–180 B.C.), of the Macedonian dynasty, son of Ptolemy IV. He succeeded to the throne as a small boy, and his reign began with disastrous civil wars.
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. Antiochus did not properly appreciate the growing power of Rome. While Philip V was engaged by the Roman armies, Antiochus recovered S Syria and Asia Minor. In 199 he won a decisive victory over the Egyptians; Palestine then reverted to Syria, having been under Egyptian rule for almost a century. In 196 he seized the Thracian Chersonese and thus alarmed the Greeks. They as well as the Egyptians sought the aid of the Romans. Antiochus, who disregarded the advice of HannibalHannibal
, b. 247 B.C., d. 183 or 182 B.C. Carthaginian general, an implacable and formidable enemy of Rome. Although knowledge of him is based primarily on the reports of his enemies, Hannibal appears to have been both just and merciful. He is renowned for his tactical genius.
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 in 193, waited and then challenged Rome by accepting the invitation of the Aetolian LeagueAetolian League,
confederation centering in the cities of Aetolia. It was formed in the 4th cent. B.C. and began to gain power in the 3d cent. in opposing the Achaean League and the Macedonians.
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 to interfere in Greece in 192. The Romans crushed him (191) at Thermopylae and again at Magnesia (190). He also lost a number of naval engagements, and in 188 he was forced to give up all his territory W of the Taurus. Thus the Seleucid empire became a purely inland Asian state, and dreams of reviving Alexander the Great's empire died.

Antiochus III

known as Antiochus the Great. 242--187 bc, king of Syria (223--187), who greatly extended the Seleucid empire but was forced (190) to surrender most of Asia Minor to the Romans
References in periodicals archive ?
Additionally, the newly emerging symploke of the region and the fact that Egypt, Pergamum, and Rhodes were hot strong enough to challenge the imperial ambitions of Philip V or Antiochus III clarifies why Greeks asked for Roman help.
They cover behavioral aspects of the northern Syria 2007 hoard of Athenian Owls from the Near East; a metallurgical perspective on Athenian tetradrachms from Tel Mikhal; the eras of Pamphylia and the Seleucid invasions of Asia Minor; the Antiochus III hoard; the metrology of Judaean small bronze coins; Severus Alexander, the Temple of Jupiter Ultor, and Jovian iconography on Roman imperial coinage; and a comparative statistical approach to early Byzantine coin circulation in the eastern provinces.
But then, in 223 BCE, Antiochus III began a vicious campaign to restore all of the original empire of Alexander the Great to Seleucid control.